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Anatomy and Physiology
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Section 1 Structural Organization of the Human Body11 Levels of Organization Chemical Level atoms combine to form molecules Cellular Level cells are made up of molecules Tissue Level groups of similar types of cellsOrgan Level contains two or more types of tissues Organ System Level organs that work closely together Organismal Level All organ systems working together for survival Organ systemsDigestive System breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces Respiratory System keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide the gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs Urinary System eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body regulates water electrolyte and acidbase balance of blood Cardiovascular system blood vessels transport blood which carries oxygen carbon dioxide nutrients wastes etc The heart pumps bloodIntegumentary System forms the external body covering and protects deeper tissues from injury Synthesizes vitamin D and houses cutaneous receptors and sweat and oil glandsprotects and supports body organs and provides a framework the muscles Skeletal Systemuse to cause movement Blood cells are formed within bones and bones store minerals Muscular System Allows manipulation of the environment locomotion and facial expression Maintains posture and produces heatNervous System fastacting control system of the body it responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glandsEndocrine System glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth reproduction and nutrient use metabolism by body cells Lymphatic System picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood disposes debris in the lymphatic stream Houses white blood cells lymphocytes involved in immunity The immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances within the bodyReproductive System overall function is production of offspring testes produce sperm and male sex hormone and male ducts and glands aid in delivery of sperm to the female reproductive track ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones the remaining female structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus Mammary glands of female breasts produce milk to nourish the newborn 12 CellsCell TheoryFour concepts known as the cell theory1 The cell is the structural and functioning unit of life 2 The activity of an organism depends on the activities of its cells 3 The activities of cells depend on their form and relative numbers of subcellular structures 4 Continuity of life has a cellular basisGeneralized Cell Cells are composed of carbon hydrogen nitrogen oxygen and trace amounts of other elements Generalized cell all cells have the same basic parts and some common functions A human cell has three main parts Plasma membrane the outer boundary of the cell Cytoplasm the intracellular fluid packed with organelles small structures that perform specific cell tasks Nucleus located near the cells center controls cellular activitiesCytoplasmic Organelles Specialized cellular compartments or structures each performing its own job to maintain the life of the cell Nonmembranous Organelles have no membranes cytoskeleton centrioles and ribosomesMembranous organelles have membranes which enable organelles to maintain an internal environment different from the surrounding cytosol peroxisomes lysosomes endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus Endomembrane system is a system of organelles that work together mainly to a produce degrade store and export biological molecules and b degrade potentially harmful substances Plasma MembraneStructure Made up of double layer of lipids phospholipids cholesterol etc with proteins embedded within Proteins can either be extended entirely through the lipid bilayer or protrude on only one face Most externally facing proteins and some lipids have sugar groups attachedFunction Serves as an external cell barrier and transports substances into our out of the cell Maintains a resting potential that is essential for excitable cells to function Externally facing proteins act as receptors for hormones neurotransmitters etc transport proteins and in celltocell recognitionMitochondriaStructure Is enclosed by two membranes each with the general structure of the plasma membraneThe outer membrane is smooth and featureless the inside membrane folds inward forming shelf like cristae that extend into the matrix a gellike substance within the mitochondrionFunction They squirm elongate and change shape almost continuouslyThey are the power plants of the cell and provide most of its ATP supplyConvert energy in the bonds of glucose and oxygen readily available energy in the form of ATP process is referred to as aerobic respiration Contain their own DNA RNA and ribosomes and are able to reproduce themselves RibosomesStructure Small darkstaining granules consisting of two subunits that can switch back and forth composed of proteins and ribosomal RNAs Ribosomes that are attached to membranes forming rough endoplasmic reticulum Function Ribosomes are sites of protein synthesis Endoplasmic Reticulum ER Interconnected tubes and parallel membranes enclosing fluidfilled cavities or cisterns coiling through the cytoplasmContinuous with the outer nuclear membrane Two types rough endoplasmic reticulum and smooth endoplasmic reticulumRough Endoplasmic ReticulumStructure External surface is studded with ribosomesFunction Receives and directs proteins from ribosomes to fluidfilled interior of the ER cisterns When new proteins are complete they are enclosed in vesicles directed to the Golgi apparatus External ribosomes manufacture all proteins secreted from cells and synthesize phospholipids Smooth Endoplasmic ReticulumStructure Consists of tubules arranged in a looping networkFunction Synthesizes lipid and steroid molecules and acts in fat metabolism and drug detoxification In muscle cells its a calcium ion deposit Golgi ApparatusStructure Consists of stacked and flattened membranous sacs associated with tiny membranous vesiclesFunction Modifies concentrates and packages proteins and lipids made at the rough ER for secretion from the cell Packages protein secretions for export packages enzymes into lysosomes for cellular use and modifies proteins destined to become part of cellular membranes PeroxisomesStructure Spherical membranous sacs containing powerful enzymes such as oxidases and catalases Function The enzymes in peroxisomes detoxify harmful chemicals and neutralize free radicals Play a role in energy metabolism by breaking down and synthesizing fatty acids LysosomesStructure Spherical membranous sacs of acid hydrolases packaged by Golgi apparatus Function Site of intracellular digestion degrade wornout organelles and tissues that arent useful and release ionic calcium from bone Cytoskeleton An elaborate network of rods running through the cytosol and accessory proteins that link these rods to other cell structures cell skeleton Three types of rods in the cytoskeleton microfilaments intermediate filaments and microtubulesMicrofilaments Thin semiflexible strands of the protein actin Dense crosslinked network of microfilaments called the terminal web which helps strength the cell surface resist compression and transmit force during cellular movements and shape changes Intermediate Filaments
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