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ANP 1105-Review Notes for Blood and the Heart copy.doc

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Anatomy and Physiology
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The Heart and BloodDescribe the composition of blood plasma and formed elements Describe the structure and function of RBCs structure and properties of hemoglobinonly fluid tissue in body both cellular and liquid components pH 735745 38C 56L in males 45L in females 8 of body mass red metallic tasteFunctionsDistribution oxygen nutrients metabolic wasteshormones maintains appropriate body temp normal pH adequate fluid volumeRegulationProtection prevents blood loss prevents infections antibodies WBCsformed elements living blood cellserythrocytes RBCs transport gasses no nuclei or organellesbiconcave diskshuge surface area compared to volume to transport gasses contain spectringives them their flexibility and allow them to change shape Filled with hemoglobin protein in gas transporthemoglobin is enclosed as to not damage any tissues or kidneyshb composed of globin2 alpha2 beta chains each bound to heme group each hb heme group bears an atom of iron which can bind to 1 O2 moleculemolecue can carry 4 O2 moleculesoxyhemoglobin hb bound to O2deoxyhemoglobin hb after O2 diffuses into tissuescarnaminohemoglobin hb bound to CO2 binds to peptide backbone not heme hematopoiesis blood cell formation in red bone marrow ex humorous and femur axial skeleton and girdles produces 30mLday hemocytoblasts stem cellserythropoeiesis hemocytoblastproerythroblastribosome synthesis hemoglobinaccumulationejection of nucleus reticulocyte erythrocyteerytheropoeisis is hormonally controlled dependent on iron amino acid and vitB supplytoo few RBCstissue hypoxia too manyundesirable blood viscosityhormone erythropoietin EPO is triggered by demand for O2 released from kidneys which signals red bone marrow to make more RBCs via erythropoiesis erytheropoiesis requires proteins lipids carbs iron vit B12 folic aciddietarylife span of RBC is 100120 daysbecome rigid and fragile and Hb degeneratesspleen RBC graveyard engulphed by macrophageshemebilirubinliver secretes as bile intestiines metabolize it leaves body in fecesglobin metabolized to amino acidsiron stored in bone marrow liver spleenstored in ferritin hemosiderin protein complexes and transferred in transferrin since loose Fe is toxic hb spilled from RBCs in the blood is phagoctized to avoid toxic buildup of O2Anemia abnormaly low O2 carrying capacity symptom rather than diseasesymptoms include fatigue paleness shrotness of breath chills etccan often be treated by blood transfusion Polycythemia excess RBCs increase blood viscosity and O2 carrying capacity leukocytes WBCs protect the bodyPlatelets stop bleedingfragments of megakaryocytes formation regulated by thomopoietincontain clotting factors and enzymescreate temporary plug for blood vessel ruptures lifespan 10 daysdevelopment
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