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Anatomy and Physiology
Jacqueline Carnegie

Anatomical TermsAnatomical Position initial reference point body erect feet slightly apart palms face forward thumbs point away from bodyWhen indicating direction right left refer to cadaver Directional TermsWhere one body structure is relative to anotherSuperior cranial above Inferior caudal belowVentral anterior in front ofDorsal posterior behind Medial on inner side of Lateral on outer side ofIntermediate bween more medialmore lateral structureProximal closer to origin of body part point of attachment Distal farther from origin of body part point of attachmentSuperficial external closer at surfaceDeep internal further away from surfaceRegional TermsUsed to designate specific areas winAxial Part main axis head neck trunkAppendicular Part limbs appendages attached to axis Body PlanesSections1 Sagittal Planevertical divides body into rightleft parts can be unequal Median Plane midline Parasagittal Planes all others 2 Frontal Coronal Plane vertical divides body into anteriorposterior parts3 Transverse Horizontal Plane horizontal divides body into inferiorsuperior parts crosssection Oblique Section diagonal cuts bween horizontalvertical planes rarely used Body CavitiesClosed to outside protect organs 1 Dorsal Body Cavity protects NS continuous Cranial Cavity skull encases brainVertebral spinal Cavity vertebral canal houses spine 2 Ventral Body Cavitylarger internal organs visceraThoracic Cavity 2 lateral pleura cavities lungscentral pericardial cavity heartAbdominopelvic Cavity superior abdominal cavity stomach intestines liver spleeninferior pelvic cavity bladder some reproductive organs rectum Integumentary SystemMade of skinits derivatives sweatoil glands hairs nails Skin154mm thickMade of 2 distinct regions1 EpidermisOutermost layer epithelial cells keratinized stratified squamous avascularCells1 Keratinocytes majority produce protein keratin protects2 Melanocytes deepest layer make pigment melanintransfer to adjacent cells protects nucleus from UV gives skin color3 Dendritic Langerhans Cells arise from bone marrow ingest foreign substances macrophages activate immune system 4 Tactile Merkel Cells epidermal dermal junction sensory receptorsLayersThick Skin covers areas subject to abrasion palms fingertips soles of feetThink Skin no stratum lucidum other layers are thinner1 Stratum Basale basal deepest single row of stem cells high mitotic index youngest keratinocytes melanocytes tactile2 Stratum Spinosum prickly several layers prekeratin filaments attach to desmosomes melanin dendritic3 Stratum Granulosum granular keratinization begins cells flatten nuclei organelles disintegrate accumulate keratohyalinelamella granules4 Stratum Lucidum clear thick skin only clear flat dead cells keratohyaline granules parallel 5 Stratum Corneum horny outermost dead cells filled w keratin fibrils strong protective waterproof glycolipid 2 DermisToughleathery thickest layer fibrous CT vascularized Semifluid matrix embedded w collagen elastinreticular fibersRich supply of nerve fibers blood vesselslymphatic vessels hair folliclesoil sweat glands reside here Cells fibroblasts macrophages WBCs mast cells immunity protection Layers1 Papillary thin superficial areolar CT w collagen strength resilience maintain skin hydrationelastin provide stretch recoil fibersblood vessels dermal papillae indent overlying epidermis friction ridges2 Reticulardeeper thick dense irregular CT extracellular matrix contains adipose cellscollagen fibers forms cleavage lines 3 Hypodermis superficial fascia Not part of skin subcutaneous adipose tissue areolar CT blood vesselsStores fat anchors skin to underlying structures muscle shock absorber insulator Skin Markings1 Friction Ridges enhance gripping ability fingerprints contain sweat glands so when you touch something it leaves a mark2 Cleavage Linessurgeons make cuts parallel to these to heal faster3 Flexure Lines dermal folds near at joints crease in palms Striae silvery white scars stretch marks tear dermis can cause blister fluid filled pocket separates epidermaldermalSkin Color1 Melanin only pigment made in skin 2 forms ranges from redyellowbrownblack skin color depends on kindamount retained freckles moles are local accumulations prolonged sun exposure causes buildup which protects DNA from UV Albinism dont produce melanin 2 Carotene found in plants yellow orange accumulates in stratum corneumhypodermis 3 Hemoglobin RBCs in dermal capillaries gives skin pink hue cyanosis lack of blood O2 skin turns blue Skin AppendagesAll play a role in maintaining homeostasis 1 HairsHair FolliclesSenses insects in skin protects against trauma heat losssunlight head shield eyes eyelashes filters large particles nose hairsHard keratin durable doesnt flake Hair StructureShaft projects from skin flatkinky ovalwavy silky roundstraight course3 layers1 Medullasoft keratin not in fine hair large cellsair spaces middle2 Cortexlayers of flattened cells pigment if here
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