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Anatomy of the Skeletal System.docx

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Anatomy and Physiology
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Anatomy of the Skeletal SystemCartilagefeatures btw dense CT and bone tough but flexibleavascular devoid of nerve fiberscollagen fibers can have some elastic fibersup to 80 waterTerms relating to cartilagePerichondriumfirbrous CT membrane covering the external surface of cartilaginous structuresin damages areas can form scar tissue because poorly vascularized cartilage repairs badlyossification of cartilage with agingChondroblastshigh mitotic rateimmature cartilage cells actively form cartilageChondrocyteslow mitotic ratemature cartilage cells maintain cartilageLacinaelocalized clusters of chondrocytesin clusters because the perichondrium takes up a lot of room so there is little room to expandTypes of cartilageHyaline cartilagemost abundantfirm support and pliabilitylots of collagen only fiber type presentappears glassy bluewhitevolume is 110 chondrocytes found in the embryonic skeleton ends of long bonds epiphyseal plates in growing children costal cartilages of ribs cartilages of the nose trachea and larynxsupports and reinforces resilient cushioning and resists compressive stressElastic cartilageslike hyaline cartilage but more elastic fibersonly found in two locations the external ear and epiglottismaintains shape while giving lots of flexibility stand up to repeated bendingFibrocartilagerows of chondrocytes with alternating rows of thick collagen fibersstructural intermediate btw hyaline cartilage and dense regular CTfound in the intervertebral discs pubic symphysis discs of knee joints where hyaline carrtilage meets a ligament or a tendontensile strength with ability to absorb compressive shockGrowth of Cartilageduring bone growth during youth and during old age cartilage can become calcified hardened due to deposit of calcium saltsthis is not bone cartilage and bone are distinct tissuestwo types of growth1 Appositional growthgrowth from outsidecartilage forming cells in the surrounding perichondrium secrete new matrix against the external face of the existing cartilage tissue2 Interstitial growthgrowth from insidelacunae bound chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix expanding the cartilage withinOverview of bonesliving dynamic tissue which responds to its environmentreacts to the amount of force applied by increasing both density and amount of roughening on bone when force is increaseddecrease density when force is reduced or eliminated eg paralysis loss of muscle function and feelingbones store calcium it is resorbed and transferred to bloodstream when neededchanges mineral composition 710 every weekcan repair itself reshape and remodel bonesFunctions of bone
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