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Final

Anatomy Study Notes - Final Exam.docx

17 Pages
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Department
Anatomy and Physiology
Course Code
ANP1106
Professor
All

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Description
Physiology of the Nervous SystemLecture 1Voltagea charge separation energy measured between two points and is known as the potential differenceBiological potentials have voltages ranging between 90 to 55 mvCurrentflow of charge from A to B as a result of potentialAmount of current depends on the resistanceOhms Lawcurrent Ivoltage vresistance rInsulators have a high resistanceConductors have a low resistanceOnly K potential contributes to membrane potentialGraded Potentialshort distanceCurrent flow decreases with distanceSensoryreceptorgenerator potentialNeurotransmitterpostsynaptic potentialAction Potentialslong distancesVoltagegated ion channelsthe basis of the ability of action potentials to be carried down axonsStrength does not decrease with distance because it is constantly being regeneratedIn myelinated axons action potentials can only occur at the Nodes of Ranvier oCurrent spreads between Nodes of Ranvier by graded potentialMyelin in the CNS is formed from oligodendrocytesMyelin in the PNS is formed from Schwann cellsDendritesligandgated channels are activated by neurotransmittersAxonsvoltagegated channels are activated by depolarizationSynaptic Terminalsvoltagegated calcium channels open to allow neurotransmitter releasedGABAopens chloride channels and is inhibitoryGlutamateopens sodium channels and is inhibitoryEndorphinsinhibit pain pathwaysTachykininsneurotransmitter in pain pathwaysPhysiology of the Nervous System SomatosensoryLecture 2Types of NeuronsMultipolarBipolarUnipolarStructural ClassMany processes extend Two processes extend One process extends from the cell body all from the cell body one from the cell body an are dendrites except for is a dendrite the other axona single axonis an axonFunctionReceptive region Conducting region Secretory region axon receives stimulusgeneratestransmits terminals release action potentialsneurotransmittersGraded potentials occur in the cell body and dendritesAction potentials occur at the axon hillockPeripheral Nervous SystemComposed of all neural structures outside the spinal cord and brainReceives input from periphery sensory receptorsSensationawareness of changes in the internal and external environmentPerceptionconscious interpretation of those stimuli activation of sensory receptors results in depolarisations that trigger impulses to the CNSReceptors are classified by stimulus type location and structural complexityStimulus TypeMechanoreceptorsrespond to touch pressure vibration stretch and itchThermoreceptorssensitive to changes in temperaturePhotoreceptorsrespond to light energyChemoreceptorsrespond to chemicalsNociceptorssensitive to paincausing stimuliLocationProprioreceptorsgive information concerning movements and positions of the bodyFound in skeletal muscle tendons joints ligaments and connective tissueExteroceptorssensitive to touch pressure pain and temperatureFound near the bodys surfaceInteroceptorssensitive to chemical changes stretch and temperature changesFound in internal viscera and blood vesselsExtrafusal fibres are innervated by large motor neurons alpha motor neuronsIntrafusal fibres are innervated by small motor neurons gamma motor neurons
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