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Study Guide

[ANP1106] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 49 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Anatomy and Physiology
Course Code
ANP 1106
Professor
Jackie Carnegie
Study Guide
Final

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uOttawa
ANP1106
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Topic 3: Anatomy of the Skeletal System
A. Bony Tissues:
Chapter 6 (omit details on embryonic bone formation & fracture repair): BONES & SKELETAL TISSUES
Bone is a living dynamic tissue which responds to its environment:
1) Bone reacts to amount of force applied by increasing both the density & amount of roughening on
bone or decreasing density when force is reduced or eliminated (eg: paralysis) (deposition vs
resorption)
2) Bone stores calcium resorbed & transferred to bloodstream when needed
FUNCTIONS OF BONE
1) SUPPORT:
2) PROTECTION:
3) MOVEMENT:
4) MINERAL STORAGE:
5) BLOOD CELL FORMATION:
6) FAT STORAGE:
7) HORMONE PRODUCTION:
3.1: Compare the structure of bony tissues and cartilages
CARTILAGE features between dense CT & bone tough, but flexible
(i) avascular, devoid of nerve fibers
(ii) ground substance contains lots of the GAGs chondroitin sulfate & hyaluronic acid - also
chondronectin, (adhesive protein)
(iii) collagen fibers (can have some elastic fibers)
(iv) up to 80% H2O
Some terms relating to cartilage:
perihodriu: …………………………………………………………………..……
In damaged areas, perichondrium can form scar tissue because poorly vascularized cartilage repairs
badly; ossification of cartilage with aging!
chondroblasts: immature cartilage cells - actively form cartilage
chondrocytes: mature cartilage cells maintain cartilage
lacunae: localized clusters of chondrocytes in cartilage - why clusters??
Types of Cartilage:
a) HYALINE CARTILAGE: most abundant; firm support + pliability; lots of collagen; appears glassy blue-
white; chondrocytes - only 1-10% of volume
Loc: embryonic skeleton, ends of long bones (epiphyseal plates in growing children), costal cartilages
of ribs, cartilages of nose, trachea, larynx
Fcn: supports & reinforces; resilient cushioning & resists compressive stress
b) ELASTIC CARTILAGE: like hyaline cartilage, but more elastic fibers
Loc: external ear, epiglottis - why does this make sense??
Fcn: maintains shape while giving lots of flexibility
c) FIBROCARTILAGE: rows of chondrocytes alternating with rows of thick collagen fibers; structural
intermediate between hyaline cartilage & dense regular CT
Loc: intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, discs of knee joints (where hyaline cartilage meets a
ligament or a tendon)
Fcn: tensile strength with ability to absorb compressive shock
BONE: calcium salts give hardness & strength for support/protection of softer tissues; cavities for fat
storage & synthesis of blood cells
osteoblasts: ……………………………………………………………………
osteocytes: …………………………………………………………………...
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osteoclasts: ……………………………………………………………………
Calcified tissue: compact bone: dense, outer layer spongy bone: trabeculae (red marrow found in
spongy bone)
Linings: lasts & lasts
periosteum: outer fibrous layer + inner osteogenic layer
endosteum: covers trabeculae of spongy bone & lines canals of compact bone
CLASSIFICATION OF BONES
• lots of ariatio i size/shapes of oes eg: pisiform bone vs femur) unique shape of each bone fulfils
a particular need (eg: femur maximum strength with minimum weight - achieves this with hollow
cylindrical design) bones classified by their SHAPE and not SIZE (long, short, flat, irregular)
• struture the same for all bone shapes:
» compact bone provides the external surface
» spongy (trabecular) bone- a honeycomb of trabeculae
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