ANP 1106 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Stratum Basale, Dendritic Cell, Loose Connective Tissue

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Anatomical terms
Standard anatomical position=initial reference point
1. Axial part =head, neck& trunk
2. Appendicular part =appendages or limbs
Body planes & Sections
1. Sagittal plane: divides into Right/Left
Midsagittal=Median runs the midline/divide 2 halves
Parasagittal: parallel to the sagittal plane
2. Frontal plane(coronal): divides into Anterior/Posterior (front/back)
3. Transverse/horizontal plane: divides into Superior/Inferior
(up/down)
Oblique section: divide Diagonal [rare]
Diaphragm divides the two cavities
The weakest protection point is the abdominal pelvic cavity
2. Ventral body cavity
Thoracic cavity
2 pleural cavities+ central pericardial cavity
Abdominopelvic cavity
Superior abdominal cavity-(Liver, Stomach, intestines, spleen)
Inferior pelvic cavity-(Bladder, Reproductive organs, Rectum)
Abdominopelvic Quadrants
R. Upper quadrant
L upper quadrant
R. Lower quadrant
L. Lower quadrant
Abdominopelvic regions
R Hypochondriac region
Epigastric region
R Lumbar region
Umbilical region
R Iliac region
Hypogastric region
Superior: Up
Inferior: Down
Anterior: Front
Posterior: Back, Behind
Medial: Toward midline, inner side
Lateral: Away from midline, outer side
Intermediate: Between medial lateral
Proximal: Close to the point of attachment
Distal: Far from the point of attachment
Superficial: Toward the surface
Deep: Away from the surface
1. Dorsal body cavity
Cranial cavity
Skull with brain
Vertebral (spinal) cavity
delicate spinal cord
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Integumentary system = skin
Structure: epidermis dermis
Epidermal cells
1. Keratinocytes: The outermost layer of the skin, holds the epidermis
2. Melanocytes: Produces melanin in deepest layer of dermis
3. Dendritic cells: Protect skin from any foreign organisms that can enter the body, located in the middle of the
body
4. Tactile cells: How the touch receptor with sensory nerve ending
4 Main epidermal layers Thin Skin
Stratum corneum: Outermost layers that has large amount of multiple layers of dead cells
Stratum lucidum: only on joints where skin are only found in thick skin
Stratum granulosum:
Stratum spinosum
Stratum basale: Innermost layer
DERMIS: strong, flexible connective tissue layer have fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells
Thick skin: involves main 2 layers
Papillary layer: Allows tight fit between thick/thin layers with bumpy layer
Dermal papillae: Upper part of the bumpy layer of papillary layer, have capillaries/nerve endings for touch/pain
Dermal ridges: gives friction ridges for skin to be tight and holds the epidermis in place.
Reticular layer: Deeper thick layer of dermis(Dense irregular CT) has the cleavage(tension)lines that gives
Involves collagen giving strength/hydration and elastic fibers giving stretch/recoil
Stretch mark/striae: Due to rapid skin increase and stretch pressure
Blister: Fluid formed inside the space between epidermis and papillary dermis/reticular dermis -happens by constant
rubbing and making lots of friction.
Flexure lines: tight epithelium connects with bones and allow bending of the joints and etc
Hypodermis: added layer that has areolar CT, Blood vessels/adipose tissues
Involves anchors skin that allows the sliding/cushioning/holding movement of skin and stores fat
Three main pigments
1. Melanin: only pigment made in skin gives variety of different colours that depends on by type/amounts +
keratinocyte
2. Carotene: changing colour depending on the pigments found in plant products
3. Hemoglobin: From capillary circulation that gives skin pinkish colour
Cyanosis: turning bluish colour by lack of oxygen rich blood circulating the body
Hairs & follicles
Functions of hair: senses anything that touches a tip of hair before touching the skin, cushioning body, protect from
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small particles entering body parts, prevent heat loss
Hard keratin protein: gives much stronger hair, protecting epithelial cells
from damage or stress that has potential to kill the cell
Hair Structure:
Shaft: part where hair is exposed out of skin 3 layers
Root: within hair follicle, under skin
Bulb: deep end of follicle, has papilla+ root hair plexus
Follicle: outer CT that surrounds hair, hair matrix
Arrector pili muscle: contracts to pull hair up and generate heat, also
making goosebumps
Sebaceous gland: secrete the oily substance sebum- waterproofs
and lubricates the skin/hair
+ protect skin from bacteria, give slow water loss
3 layers of Shaft
- Medulla: large cells separated by air spaces-not in fine thin
hairs, only in thick hairs
- Cortex: Several layers of flat keratinocytes-contain pigment
- Cuticle: Single layer of overlapping cells
- Split ends is dead end hairs
- Hair turning white/grey due to loss of pigment melanin
and instead there is a hair follicle’s space filled with air
Hair Thinning/Baldness
Vellus hair: finer hair with no medulla vs terminal hair: thicker body hairs
-hair growth depends on hormones, nutrition hirsutism: unusual excessive hair for women
Growth cycles: each hair follicles have Active growth phase -> regressive/resting phase
eg. Head hair has longer cycles than eyebrows
Alopecia: Patches/spots baldness
Male pattern baldness: baldness due to testosterone constantly changing DHT
-Loss of active growth phase genetic problem
Nails: modified epidermis that is protective and helpful tool
Lunula: inner white crescent part of nail
Free edge: Ends part of nail
Nail Body: exposed part of the nail distal to the root
Nail folds: end part of skin on top of nail
Hyponychium: under distal part of finger nail
Health Status from Nail
-Yellow-tinged: Fungal infection, or fungal infection or a
serious respiratory or thyroid gland disorder
-Thickening: Fungal infection
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