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Chapter 1Explanations of the Human ConditionDualisticmaterialisticIdealistic Exceptions of Our WorldCannot describe the human condition with one single conditionHuman nature has 2 partsaccording to NAs mind and mattersoul and body or spirit and fleshThe belief that human nature or reality is made up of two radically different yet equal forces is called dualismEach person made of earthly material body inhabited by a mind whose true home is the realm of ideal formsPlato constant struggle between the bodydrawn to basecorruptible matter and the mind or souldrawn to pureunchanging formsChristianity each body consists of a soulConflict dualism sometimes earthly life is a struggle between spirit and fleshIdealism the body is a material impediment that frustrates the full development of the mind or spiritMaterial activities of our physical bodies in the material world make us who we areMaterialismThe philosophical view that the material activities of our physical bodies in the material world constitute the essence of human natureMaterialists argue that human nature is determined by the casual force of physical matterIdealism and materialism are forms of determinismIdealists claim the human nature is determined by the casual force of mind or spiritDeterminismThe philosophical view that one simple force causes complex eventsEssenceAn unchanging core of features that is unique to things of the same kind and makes them what they are Argument over whether we come into the world with an essence or notNatural environment may shape who we are eg droughtsoil raising of animalsKarl Marx our economic production and social relations form who we areHolism1A perspective on the human condition that assumes that mind and body individual and society and individual and environment interpenetrate and even define one another2Something cannot be reduced to the materials it is constructed with3A society is not just the sum of the behaviors of its individual members4CoevolutionRelationship between biological processes and symbolic cultural processes in which each makes up an important part of the environment to which the other must adapt5Human beingsare creatures whose bodiesbrainsactions and thoughts are equally involved in learning codetermining and coevolvingThe Anthropological Perspective The Crossdisciplinary DisciplineAnthropology The study of human nature human society and human historyAnthropology is a comparative disciplineSome anthropologists study not only the biological evolution of the human species but to the patterns ofbiological variation in living human populationsCritical differences that seperate biological evolution from cultural evolutionComparativeA characteristic of the anthropological perspective that requires anthropologists to consider similiarities and differences in as wide a range of human societies as possible before generalizing about human naturesocietyor historyEvolutionaryA characteristic of the anthropological perspective that requires anthropologists to place their observations about human nature human society or human history in a temporal framework that takes into consideration change over timeBiological AnthropologyThe specialty of anthropology that looks at human beings as biological organisms and tries to discover what characteristics make us different from other organisms and what characteristics we shareRaces social groupings that allegedly reflected biological differenceRacism the systematic oppression of one or more socially defined races by another socially defined race that is justified in terms of the supposed biological superiority of the rulers and the supposed biological inferiority of those they ruleBiological AnthropologistsAnthropologists who specialize in study of patterns of biological variation within the human species as a wholePrimatology The study of nonhuman primates the closes living relatives of human beingsPaleoanthropology The search for fossilized remains of humanitys earliest ancestorsArchaeologyArchaeology The study of the human past involving the analysis of material remains left behind by earlier human societiestrace spread of cultural inventions over time and spaceLinguistic AnthropologyLanguage The system of arbitrary vocal symbols we use to encode our experiences of the world and of one anotherLinguistic Anthropology The specialty of anthropology concerned with the study of human languageswork to maintain endangered languagesCultural AnthropologyCultural AnthropologyThe specialty of anthro that shows how variation in the beliefs and behaviors of different human groups is shaped by sets of learned behaviors and ideas that human beings acquire as members of societythat isby culturestudy of common sensestudy issues of gender and sexualitytransnational labor migration urbanizationglobalization and the resurgence of ethnicity and nationalisminterested in material lifedescribe the natural setting for which technologies have been developed and analyze the way technologies and environments shape each otherSensitive to sociocultural influences that stretch across space and timeFieldworkan extended period of close involvement with the people in whose language or way of life anthropologists are interested during which anthropologists ordinarily collect most of their dataParticipant ObservationThe method anthropologists use to gather information by living as closely as possible to the people whose culture are studying while participating in their lives as
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