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Midterm

APA2120 Midterm: APA 2120 MIDTERM
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Department
Human Kinetics
Course Code
APA2120
Professor
Diane Ste- Marie

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Schmidt’s Schema Theory: set of rules that defines an abstract memory representation
2 Schemas:
1. RECALL: assigns movement parameters (fast movements, open loop)
2. RECOGNITION: evaluates correctness of movements, compares desired results to actual
& adjusts (slow movements, closed loop)
OPEN-LOOP: (feedforward)
No feedback
Fast movements
OPEN SKILL:
Parameters change as movement is
happening (lots of movement in
environment)
CLOSED-LOOP: (feedback)
Can adjust movements
Slower movements
CLOSED SKILL:
constant
A set of muscle commands structured before a movement
begins that allows a sequence to be carried out uninfluenced
by peripheral feedback (is the control unit for humans!)
Generalized Motor Program
Captures basic forms of our movement
Can generate many movements
Development of GMP & Recall/Recognition Schemas (info sources):
1. Initial Conditions: info about context before movement is made
2. Parameters Assigned: force/duration that movement is given
3. Sensory Consequences: intrinsic/exteroceptive info received/expected
4. Outcome: intrinsic/extrinsic info about movement once executed (feedback)
GMP’s have INVARIANTS & PARAMETERS:
INVARIANTS: deep structures
-components that remain constant
-fundamental features of GMP that do
not change from 1 execution to the
next
PARAMETERS: “surface features”
-modifiable features for a GMP
-input specifications for GMP that
define how a movement is executed
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
**Invariant Features**
1. Order of elements
2. Phasing/Relative timing: involves ration/proportion of each component to the total time
Same relative timing=same GMP
Dif. Relative timing= dif. GMP
3. Relative Force
Parameters:
1. Absolute duration: overall speed at which a program is executed can change
2. Absolute force: overall force produced by muscles can change
3. Effectors:
Muscles used can change
Same GMP can be executed with dif. Muscles
Motor equivalence: dif. effectors can be used to achieve same goal
DYNAMICAL APPROACH:
A set of internal processes associate w/ practice/experience- results in relative permanent
changes in capability for a skill
PERFORMANCE OUTCOME
MEASURES:
What’s happening after
activity/movement completed
Sometimes uses time measures
PERFORMANCE PRODUCTION
MEASURES:
Receives info about how movement
is used/produced
More kinematic data
KINESTHESIA: conscious perception of limb movement
PROPRIOCEPTION: sense of body/orientation in space
Reason/Purpose of BRAIN:
To produce adaptable/complex
movements
Collective Variables: (order parameters)
-functionally specific
-define an overall behaviour of a system
-has a distinct pattern of movement
Control Parameters:
-movement variable that adjusts according to
characteristics of the situation (ex. Increasing
speed of movement)
-
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

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Description
find more resources at oneclass.com Schmidt’s Schema Theory: set of rules that defines an abstract memory representation 2 Schemas: 1. RECALL: assigns movement parameters (fast movements, open loop) 2. RECOGNITION: evaluates correctness of movements, compares desired results to actual & adjusts (slow movements, closed loop) OPEN-LOOP: (feedforward) CLOSED-LOOP: (feedback)  No feedback  Can adjust movements  Fast movements  Slower movements OPEN SKILL:  Parameters change as movement is CLOSED SKILL: happening (lots of movement in  constant environment) A set of muscle commands structured before a movement begins that allows a sequence to be carried out uninfluenced by peripheral feedback (is the control unit for humans!) Generalized Motor Program  Captures basic forms of our movement  Can generate many movements Development of GMP & Recall/Recognition Schemas (info sources): 1. Initial Conditions: info about context before movement is made 2. Parameters Assigned: force/duration that movement is given 3. Sensory Consequences: intrinsic/exteroceptive info received/expected 4. Outcome: intrinsic/extrinsic info about movement once executed (feedback) GMP’s have INVARIANTS & PARAMETERS: INVARIANTS: “deep structures” PARAMETERS: “surface features” -components that remain constant -modifiable features for a GMP -fundamental features of GMP that do -input specifications for GMP that not change from 1 execution to the define how a movement is executed next find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com **Invariant Features** 1. Order of elements 2. Phasing/Relative timing: involves ration/proportion of each component to the total time Same relative timing=same GMP Dif. Relative timing= dif. GMP 3. Relative Force Parameters: 1. Absolute duration: overall speed at which a program is executed can change 2. Absolute force: overall force produced by muscles can change 3. Effectors:  Muscles used can change  Same GMP can be executed with dif. Muscles  Motor equivalence: dif. effectors can be used to achieve same goal DYNAMICAL APPROACH: Collective Variables: (order parameters) Control Parameters: -functionally specific -movement variable that adjusts according to -define an overall behaviour of a system characteristics of the situation (ex. Increasing -has a distinct pattern of movement speed of movement) - A set of internal processes associate w/ practice/experience- results in relative permanent changes in capability for a skill PERFORMANCE OUTCOME PERFORMANCE PRODUCTION MEASURES: MEASURES:  What’s happening after  Receives info about how movement activity/movement completed is used/produced  Sometimes uses time measures  More kinematic data KINESTHESIA: conscious perception of limb movement Reason/Purpose of BRAIN: PROPRIOCEPTION: sense of body/orientation in space To produce adaptable/complex movements find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com 1. Translates intention to perform a movement Afferent: TO brain 2. Transmits control signals for relevant muscles
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