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BIO 1130 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Bacteria, Evolution, Dna


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO 1130
Professor
Jon Houseman
Study Guide
Final

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BIO 1130

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Adhesion
-Property of water allowing it water molecules to interact with other
molecules, making cell-to-cell adhesion
-Due to hydrogen bonds
-Ex: water molecules sticking to walls of conducting tubes in plants
Archaean eon
- -One of the 4 major eons in earth history (3.8-2.5 billion years ago)
- Bacterial life (prokaryotes) start to form, able to create proton
gradients and energy to create ATP, all anaerobically)
- One lineage figures out how to take proton off water (lots of
energy, more than any other organism or mechanism). A
biproduct of this is oxygen, so oxygen begins to accumulate
- This only occurred once so whole ocean was dominated by this
type of bacteria
- Oxygen was toxic to other organisms, so they escaped to the
bottoms of the oceans (to hot springs).
Oxygen got absorbed by minerals, major period of continent formation
Biomonomers
-Part of the theory of chemical evolution
-Subunits that link to form polymers
-Contained carbon and formed organic compounds abiotically, later
became more complex organic compounds
-Ex: different types of acids, nucleic acids which form DNA and proteins
Biopolymers
Part of the theory of chemical evolution
-Evolved version of biomonomers, macromolecules consisting of long
chains of basic organic units such as nucleic acids, amino acids to form
DNA sequences and proteins
-First biopolymers were much smaller and shorter than the ones existing
today, however they were long enough to form the simplest prokaryote
organism
Polymerization was more likely to occur in clay proven from the
formation of short nucleic acid chains and polypeptides on the
surface of clay
-Ex: DNA and proteins
Building phase of the
earth
KT
Carbon
Life on earth is based on the versatility of this element, its ability to form 4
Key Terms: Hadean Eon
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bonds and forming the backbone of complex organic molecules (rings,
chains), macromolecules and functional groups
-Almost any molecule containing carbon is considered organic (except
CO2, CO, CH4)
-Comes from dying suns
-Can have different properties based on its allotrope
-Methane was one of the main gases in the primitive atmosphere
Cenozoic
Paleogene and Neogene (14 Ma)
- Get rid of the specialized reptiles
o All reptiles that dominate oceans and skies
- Turtles, snakes, and crocodiles survivecomes with specialized
habits (snakes-burrows, turtles-shells, etc.)
Central dogma
Describes that all living forms arise from this particular process: DNA-RNA-
proteins.
-The coding of the nucleotide sequence in DNA is replicated and goes
through transcription to make copies of RNA, which is then translated to
specific proteins. Proteins are essentially what make living things function.
-DNA strands are unique to each organism, since each has unique
functions. Altering the DNA sequence would change its protein sequence
and therefore its functioning
- The important idea in biology consisting of 1. Replication of DNA,
2. Transcription of DNA, and 3. Translation of DNA
- Genetic information is coded in self-replicating DNA
- Undergoes unidirectional (cannot go backwards) transfer to
RNA’s i trasriptio
- Then protein synthesis occurs by translation
- I the 80’s, leared that RNA a tur ito DNA after the discovery
of retrovirus HIV
The quest in molecular biology is to find how and when the central dogma
arose
the oded geeti iforatio hard-wired into DNA is transcribed into
individual transportable cassettes, composed of messenger RNA; each
RNA assette otais the progra for sthesis of a partiular protei
Chemical evolution
- The natural process in which life arose from non-living matter such
as simple organic compounds
- Development of more and more complex chemicals
- Arkha’s razor states that life had to have started on Earth.
- The formation of complex organic molecules from simpler
inorganic molecules
Happened over 1 billion years by chemical reactions in the ocean during
earth’s earlstages
Cohesion
-Property of water allowing its molecules to stick to each other
-Due to hydrogen bonds, a strong intermolecular force
-Ex: during evaporation, water molecule that are attached to each other all
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