BIO1140- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 66 pages long!)

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BIO1140
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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What is a cell?
Robert Hooke first to tinker with lenses etc., coined the term microscope
- Looked at cork; made up of similar little compartments, that make up the object
- Cellulae = cells (not living cells obviously, but the remains of cells saw the cell
walls)
- Lay the groundwork for what would become the cell theory (in hundreds of years)
After 200 years of observations and gathering data, we have a way of classifying every living
organism into a tree, in the discipline of biology.
What lead to this?
Better observation techniques help contribute to this knowledge.
Build on other peoples discoveries must communicate findings to other scientists
Discussion - are viruses life forms?
they can’t replicate on their own, they can’t metabolize without a host
according to cell theory, we can say that viruses are not a life form (they do not have a cell )
Cell Theory mid 1800s
All organisms are composed of one or more cells
The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all living organisms
Cells arise only from division of pre-existing cells
If all cells arise only from pre-existing cells, how did the first cell come to be?
RNAs have the ability to catalyze reactions (something DNA cannot do as well), so RNAs are
thought to be the origin of the very first cell. Possible sequence of events: small inorganic
molecules turned in to organic macromolecules, that gave rise to very basic cell-like structures,
eventually prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
What do all 7 types of cells have in common? Differences?
Similarities:
They all are enclosed have walls as a barrier and to differentiate inside vs. outside
They all have cytoplasm something to fill in the space
Wide range of components/cellular features
They all have the same basic chemistry
They all have a metabolism, mechanism to get rid of waste (even if not the same)
DNA
Differences:
Not all of them have nuclei having a nucleus means that the cell is specialized, contains
DNA in that compartment; replication is different in cells with nucleus vs. without, speed
at which things happen with DNA will also be different
- Prokaryote or eukaryotes depending on nucleus or not
Some have cilia or flagella, others do not have these
Some can survive as a unicellular organism, some cannot
How they produce ATP is different in each (algae being photosynthetic, for example)
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Wide range of sizes (nm to m) some neurons can reach up to 1m long!
Simple or complex shapes; related to function
General OR highly specialized role
Typical cell sizes:
Prokaryote: 1-5um
Eukaryote: 10-100um
be able to compare things on the size scale, not specific size per say
Electron microscope:
benefits: can look at very small organelles
disadvantage: kills the sample
Why are cells small?
Ratio between the surface area and the volume of substance inside too big, you cannot
maintain the entire space. Have to get nutrients inside the cell if the cell is too big, it is
difficult to get the nutrients inside once they’re through the membrane.
Larger cells need even more nutrients to maintain itself/thrive.
overall, smaller cells are more EFFICIENT
What next?
Cells can remain individual (i.e. in blood) or assemble together to form functional tissues and
organs.
What elements of organisms can we use to classify them in phylogenetic trees?
Ribosomal RNA allows us to pinpoint what mechanics the cells use to build protein. This
is what will allow us to classify them exactly where they belong.
The cell wall and plasma membrane is another good place to look how is the wall built?
Prokaryotes unicellular, bacteria, archaea
Eukaryotes multicellular (plants, fungi), unicellular (protists)
*When going through concepts, compare similarities & differences between the two!
Prokaryotes:
Small (1-5 um)
Keep it simple
Highly adaptable (extremophiles)
Small genomes, plasmids
Eukaryotes:
Larger (10-100 um or larger)
Elaborate membranes allow compartments to organize cellular functions
Transport systems
Larger genomes, linear, with associated proteins
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