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BIO 3102 Study Guide - Amoeboid Movement, Proterozoic, Plasma Cell


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO 3102
Professor
All

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PROTEROZOIC EON
1. 9+2 organization
- Inside arrangement of microtubules
consisting of globular proteins
associated together to make
microtubules
- Groups of 9 paired microtubules on the
outside, then one pair on the inside.
oConnected to each other with
dyenin arms.
2. Alternation of generations
- the alternation of two or more different
forms in the life cycle of a plant or
animal
3. Ameboid (Amoeboid) movement
- crawling-like type of movement
accomplished by protrusion
of cytoplasm of the cell involving the
formation of pseudopodia. The
cytoplasm slides and forms a
pseudopodium in front to move the cell
forward. This type of movement has
been linked to changes in action
potential; the exact mechanism is still
unknown. This type of movement is
observed in amoeboids, slime molds and
some protozoans, as well as some cells
in humans such as leukocytes. Sarcomas,
or cancers arising from connective tissue
cells, are particularly adept at amoeboid
movement, thus leading to their high rate
of metastasis.
- Locomotion of amoeba occurs due
the sol-gel conversion of the cytoplasm
within its cell. The ectoplasm being
called the plasma gel and
the endoplasm the plasma sol. The
conversion of the endoplasm to ecto and
vice versa is called sol-gel conversion
4. Antibody
- gamma globulin proteins that are found
in blood or other bodily

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fluids of vertebrates, and are used by
the immune system to identify
and neutralize foreign objects, such
as bacteria and viruses. They are
typically made of basic structural units
—each with two large heavy chains and
two small light chains—to form, for
example,monomers with one
unit, dimers with two units
or pentamers with five units. Antibodies
are produced by a kind of white blood
cell called a plasma cell. There are
several different types of antibody heavy
chains, and several different kinds of
antibodies, which are grouped into
different isotypes based on which heavy
chain they possess. Five different
antibody isotypes are known in
mammals, which perform different roles,
and help direct the appropriate immune
response for each different type of
foreign object they encounter.
- any of a large variety of proteins
normally present in the body or
produced in response to an antigen
which it neutralizes, thus producing an
immune response
- A substance formed by the body cells
that guard against invading organisms or
substances
5. Antigen
- An antigen is a molecule recognized by
the immune system. Originally the term
came from antibody generator and was a
molecule that binds specifically to
an antibody,
- Autoimmune disorders arise from the
immune system reacting to its own
antigens.
- Any substance (as a toxin or enzyme)
that stimulates an immune response in
the body (especially the production of
antibodies)
6. Archea

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- The Archaea are a group of single-
celled microorganisms. A single
individual or species from this domain is
called anarchaeon (sometimes spelled
"archeon"). They have no cell nucleus or
any other membrane-
bound organelles within their cells. In
the past they were viewed as an unusual
group of bacteria and
named archaebacteria, but since the
- Archaea have an
independent evolutionary history and
show many differences in their
biochemistry from other forms of life,
they are now classified as a separate
domain in the three-domain system. In
this system the phylogenetically distinct
branches of evolutionary descent are the
Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya.
- Archaea are further divided into four
recognized phyla, but many more phyla
may exist. Of these groups
the Crenarchaeota and
the Euryarchaeota are most intensively
studied. Classification is still difficult,
since the vast majority have never been
studied in the laboratory and have only
been detected by analysis of their nucleic
acids in samples from the environment.
7. Asexual reproduction
- Reproduction without the fusion of
gametes
- Only one parent is involved in asexual
reproduction.
- Asexual reproduction is the primary
form of reproduction for single-celled
organisms such as the archaea, bacteria,
and protists.Many plants and fungi repro
duce asexually as well.
- Types:
conjugation, transformation and transduc
tion
- Asexual reproduction may have short
term benefits when rapid population
growth is important or in stable
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