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BIO 3102 Study Guide - Diapsid, Temporal Bone, Anapsid


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO 3102
Professor
All

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Mesozoic Keywords
Amniote animals:-were able to live on dry land, and did not rely on standing water
-they had waterproof skin
-amniote eggs w/ 4 specialized membranes and resistant to desiccation
-egg had membranes that protected embryo and facilitated gas exchange
-some produce urea and/or uric acid
-can be divided into 3 groups based on number of bony arches in temporal region of skull
Anapsid:-one of the 3 lineages of the reptile group
-derived diapsids
-member of amniote vertebrates
-not temporal arches and no spaces on the side of the skull
-example: turtles
Diapsids:-two temporal arches and descendants include dinosaurs, lizards, snakes, crocodilians
-becomes anapsid
-2 groups of diapsids; one becomes extinct, one will survive
Synapsids:-group of small predators
-had one temporal arch on each side of head
-emerged in Permian
-mammals are living descendants
Temporal fenestra:-bilaterally symmetrical holes in the temporal bone; number of which
indicate whether species is anapsid, diapsid, synapsid
-have to do with jaw musculature; not seen in anapsids
Angiosperm:-flowering plants
-defining feature are the flowers (reproductive structures)
-another defining feature are fruits (helps protect/disperse seeds)
-most ecologically diverse plant on planet; grow on dry land and wetlands, freshwater, seas
-seeds are made a lot more nutritious; extra tissue wrapped around them so animals will carry
them around
Anther:-structure within which male gametophyte is made
-4 pollen sac located in each anther and this is where microspores are produced
Ovule:-found inside ovary
-this is where megaspores are produced and in the case of angiosperm, they are surrounded by
sporangial tissue

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-where egg develops and fertilization takes place
-seed is a mature ovule
Endosperm:-large cell with 3 nuclei that results from the meiosis of megaspores (one survives,
3 disintegrate; and then this one cell undergoes 3 mitotic divisions without cytokinesis)
-nutritive tissue
-produced after fertilization
-one of the 2 sperm in the pollen tube will fertilize the endosperm-producing cell
-triploid in species Lilium that is going to be the nutritive tissue that nourishes the developing
embryo
-form from tissues of the 3n cell in double fertilization
-evolution coincided with reduction in size of female gametophyte
Carpel:-includes female reporductive parts
-this is where female gametophytes form
-lower part is the ovary
-in plants with more than one carpel, carpels fuse in a single common ovary with multiple ovules
-it has a style that widens at upper end, terminating in a stigma
-angiosperm refers to carpel
Pollination:-in Mesozoic, plants begin to use animals to move pollen around
-plants will produce nectar/sugar has no value to plant (it is a reward for insect that will come to
pollinate plant)
-combine with colouration of flower petals; coevolution b/w plants and pollinators
-vast majority of pollinators (insects-bees/butterflies)
-some plants give off bad scents that attract flies to carry pollen around
-relationship b/w pollinator/plant; we end up with high levels of speciation
-complete changing of plants; all shift towards flowering
-when pollen grains make contact with the stigma of the flower
-air/water currents, insects, bats, birds, make this transfer
-first series of events that leads to fertilization
-pollen and stigma need to me compatible
Fruit:-reward for insect that will come to pollinate plant
-structure that helps to protect and disperse seeds
-after fertilization, ovary develops into fruit
Nectar:-sweet liquid secretion that is attractive to pollinators
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