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Part I Review (For Midterm #1 2010) This is a review of Guillet's section of Molecular Biology, from the central dogma to DNA repair. It includes definitions to key terms, notes from the lectures, and learning objectives

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University of Ottawa
Jos�e Coutu

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY REVIEW MIDTERM ITHE CENTRAL DOGMA Objectives Key Terms Fundamental dogma in biologyDNA is the holder of genetic information which is transcribed into mRNA which is translated into proteins as proposed by Dr CrickDNA can also give rise to DNA through replicationThere are certain exceptions to this rule such as reverse transcriptase and the RNA world conceptPrion A proteinaceous infectious particle misfolded versions of regular proteinsThere are posttranslational modifications of the regular protein into a prion protein which is then able to misfold other proteinsPrions are involved in peptidemediated diseases ex mad cow diseaseThey combine to form extracellular insoluble fibrous aggregatesIt is a proteinmediated infection or information transfer therefore an exception to the central dogmaPrions are resistant to temperature increases and protease KPrions were first discovered by Dr PursinerSequential information The information in DNA is encoded in a linear sequence each monomer is connected and read in one directionOne biopolymers sequence is used as a template for the construction of another biopolymer which has a directional flowSynthetic genome A genome that is synthesized a complete collection of manmade DNAIn Dr Venters latest project a synthetic genome roughly 1 Mbp coding for a minimal version of the Mycoplasma capricolum genome was injected in the M Mycoides empty shell which then started to replicate and act like a M Capricolum cellRibozyme An RNA molecule possessing a well defined tertiary structure that enables it to have enzymatic abilities for example hydrolysis of their own phosphodiester bondsDr Sidney Altman first discovered ribozymes as RNA enzymes a principle beyond the central dogma and proposing the idea of RNA World a suggestion that RNA was the first hereditary molecule to be used taking the place of both protein and DNASome eukaryotic and prokaryote premRNA can selfsplice via an intron ribozymeRNA world hypothesis First suggested by Dr Sidney Altman it is the suggestion that RNA was the first holder of genetic information as it could also act as an enzyme therefore replacing the initial use of DNA and proteinsLater on as chemical evolution proceeded DNA and proteins aroseDihedral angle The relative orientation of two planesRighthanded movement or clockwise rotation corresponds to positive dihedral valuesLinking twist and writhing of dsDNA Linkingnumber of turns of one strand about the other when DNA is displayed in one planeLTWTwistnumber of revolutions of one strand around the other under a given conformationfor righthanded rotationsWrithingnumber of supercoilsfor righthanded rotations DNA topology The shape and supercoiling of the DNA molecule RNA splicing and RNA selfsplicing After transcription introns noncoding sequences in between coding sequences are removed by spliceosomes which are RNA and protein complexesHowever in certain cases RNA can splice itselfReverse transcription Through an enzyme called reverse transcriptase RNA can revert itself to a form of DNAThis was first discovered by Dr Termin who observed that production of RNA tumour viruses was sensitive to actonomycin D an inhibitor of transcriptionReversed dogma A reference to Cricks central dogma which did not seem to include that RNA could possibly be the central information holder to then give rise to DNAGoals The Relative Scientific Contribution of the Following Scientists Drs Watson and Crickproposed the complete structure for doublestranded DNADr Crick in particular proposed the central dogma of biology DNARNAprotein VenterHuman Genome Projectsynthetic cell produced a whole synthetic genome for Mycoplasma mycoides which was then inserted into an empty mycoplasm cell Altmanthe discovery of ribozymes as RNA enzymes RNA can hydrolyze its own phosphodiester bondsproposition of RNA World Prusinerthe discovery of prions proteinaceous infectious particles where the infecting agent is NOT DNA or even RNA but protein Teminreverse dogmadiscovered transcription through the enzyme reverse transcriptase based on observing that production of RNA tumour viruses was sensitive to actonomycin D an inhibitor of transcriptionKnow the structure of the nucleic bases and the dsDNA
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