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Chapter 10 BIO.docx

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Jon Houseman

Chapter 10 Nucleic acid structure and DNA replicationBiochemical Identification of the genetic materialThe genetic material functions as a blurpint for constructing organismsGenetic material must have info transmission replication and variationAugust Weisman and Karl Nageli proposed the idea that a chemical substance exits in living things that is responsible for the transmission of parents to offspring Chromosomes carry the biomolecules that dictate cell and organismal structure and functionChromosomes consist of protein and dnaBacterial transformation experimentsPathogenicity the ability to cause a diseaseIn the mouse experiment the transformed bacteria had acquired the information to make a capsule from the heat killed cells Hershey and Chase studied the T2 virus infects the ecoli bacteria and therefore known as a bacteriophage The phage coat of the bacteriophage is composed of protein The material in the T2 provides the blueprint to make new phages but all viruses must introduce their genetic material into the cytoplasm of the living host cell to have it replicated Sulphur atoms are found in DNA while phosphorus is found in proteinsNucleic Acid structureNucleotides are building blocks of DNAA strand of DNA is formed by the covalent linkage of nucleotides in a linear mannerTwo strands of DNA can hydrogen bond with each other to form a double helixDNA is associated with different proteins to form chromosomesGenome is the complete compliment of an organisms genetic material NucleotidesThree components phosphate group pentose sugar and nitrogenous baseCompared with ribose sugar deoxyribose is missing a single oxygen atom Purineadenine and guanine double ring structurePyrimidinecytosine thymine and uracil single ring structureIn a sugar ring the carbon atoms are numbered in the clockwise direction starting with the carbon atom to the right of the oxygen atomDNA StrandThe linkage type is a phosphodiester bond between a phosphorous and an oxygen involving a sugar molecule inone nucleotide and a phosphate group in another nucleotidePhosphates and sugar molecules form the backboneBackbone is negatively charged because the negative charges of the phosphate groups Strand had directionality based on the orientation of the sugar molecules with the strandAntiparallel Helical Structure This structure is stabilized by hydrogen bonds between the bases in opposite strandsOptimum hydrogen bonding occurs when all the bonds between bases are formedDouble ring always pairs with a single ring
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