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Midterm

Bio 1000 Midterm Notes.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIO1109
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Spring

Description
Bio1000MidtermNotesChapter1LightandLifeLightportionofelectromagneticspectrumdetectedbyoureyesoParticlewavedualitylighthaspropertiesofawaveofphotonsWaveofphotonsoPhotonstreamofenergyparticlesAbsorptionofLightPhotonenergyeinmoleculeexcitedemovesfromgroundstatetoexcitedstatePhotoncanonlybeabsorbedifphotonenergygroundstateexcitedstateEyemechanismtosenselightVisioninterpretsinformationConecolourRodsensitivedimlightChlorophyllABabsorptionoflightPigmentsmoleculesthataregoodatabsorbingphotonsConjugatedsystemdelocalizedeAlternatingsingledoublebondsoApigmentscolorphotonoflightitdoesnotabsorbreflecttoeyesLightasaSourceofInformationPhotoreceptorlightsensingsystemoMostcommoninnaturerhodopsinoEachrhodopsinmoleculeproteinopsinbondedtopigmentretinaloPhotoreceptorsarecellshavebasicorganellesoRodsdisklightabsorbingrhodopsinhereAbsorptionofphotonretinalchangesshapetriggerschangesinopsintriggersotherstuffoRetinalCiskinkinconformationInthedarkTranstraightconformationInthelightCellsinfrontoftheretinaaretransparentThisiswhylightisnotdisturbedCompoundeyebuiltofunitsommatidiaCameraeyesinglelenseyelightentersthroughcornealensconcentrateslightlightisfocusedontheretinaphotoreceptorsbackofeyeinfosenttobrainthroughopticnerveTrichromats3kindsofopsinproteinsDichromats2kindsofopsinproteinsSequenceofanorganismsopsinproteinsdeterminesthespectralsensitivityofitsconecellsShortwavesensitiveSWSMediumwavesensitiveMWSLongwavesensitiveLWSSWSMWSdichromaticvisionSWSMWSandLWStrichromaticvisionAbsorbancespectrumhowwellspecificpigmentsabsorbdifferentwavelengthsoflightDichromatstrichromatsbecauseoframdomgeneticmutationStrivedbecauseofselectionRegionwithoutphotoreceptorsourblindspotoHavingtwoeyescompensatesforthisoOpticnervecreatesthisbygoingthroughtheretinaBacteriadonothavehistonesbasicproteinsfoundinchromatinpositivelychargedLightDamagePhotooxidativedamageabsorptionofexcesslightenergyphotonsO2excitedereactiveOwhichisdamagingIonizingradiationphotonsenergeticenoughtoremoveanefromanatomSuchradiationisemittedwiththedecayofradioactivenucleioExUVlightoDNAissusceptibletothisThyminedimerscanbeformed2basescovalentlybondcanchangeshapeofDNAformkinksPreventsSNAreplicationthispointoMelaninapigmentabsorbsUVlightPreventsdamageUsinglightToTellTimeCircadianrhythmsgovernedbybiologicalclockoSleepwakecyclesbodytemperaturemetabolicprocessescelldivisionoFreerunningcanrunindependentlyofexternalconditionsPhotoperiodthedaylengthTheSCNsuprachiasmaticnucleusreceiveslightinputsthroughopticnervetoresetReleaseofmelatoninfromthepinealglandhelpsthisresettingoccurswhenlightissensedJetlagprovesthatbiologicalclockdoesnotautomaticallyadjusttoexternalenvironmentLifeintheDarkNightweloseabilitytoseecolourthenabilitytodistinguishshapesRodsdonotdistinguishcolourare100xaresensitiveasconesTheblindmolerateisstillabletodetectlighttoresetitsbiologicalclockBioluminescenceoUsedtoattractmatepreycamouflageforcommunication
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