Movement: Ciliated – metachronal wave.
Reproduction: Binary fission. Also display nuclear dimorphism, micronucleus set aside for meiotic
Feeding: Specialized cilia help create water current that brings food toward cytostome.
Movement: Pseudopods ( fluid endoplasm being pushed forward by myosin motors crawling on
polymerizing acting fibers. Once the endoplasm hit the hyaline cap it will polymerize into a gel-like
ectoplasm. At back end the ectoplasm is being turned into endoplasm. Cytoplasmic flow mainly due to
actin/myosin with some dynein/kinesin help. Type II myosin motors create attachments between actin
fibers, squeezing cytoskeleton and creating cytoplasmic streaming.
Reproduction: Nuclear fusion or mitosis to create fruiting bodies or cysts.
Platyhelminthes: flat worms
Acoelomate triploblasts. Bilateral. Cephalized w/ an anterior brain that coordinates input from eye spots
and auricles (chemoreceptors), to 2 nerve cords that run along body.
Feeding: single opening on ventral side that picks up particulate matter, also excretes waste from
mouth. Can be carnivorous parasites. Mouth connects with a branching incomplete gut.
Movement: Cilia and undulating muscles.
Reproduction: Monoecious w/ separated insemination and fertilization. Everyone gets pregnant.
Bilateral, pseudocoelomate triploblasts. Gas exchange across cuticle. Mostly terrestrial.
Feeding: Circular muscles form 2 valves in pharynx, an anterior and posterior valve. Necessary to
swallow food since there is constant hydrostatic pressure. Feed on anything, may be parasites and
Movement: Flexible cuticle, along with a hydrostatic skeleton and longitudinal muscles allow it to move
in whiplike motions. This is because it can contract the longitudinal muscles on one side of the body
independent of the other side. But it is important to note that since it is not segmented, the entire side
contracts. Muscles have cytoplasmic extensions to nerve cord. Reproduction: Separate sexes, they are dimorphic. Males have amoeboid sperm, fertilization is internal.
Fit neither spiral nor radial cleavage. Eutilic (born like a miniature version of adult, with fixed number of
cells that simply grow in size.)
Bilateral, sessile and colonial (will make reefs w/ protective calcareous and/or chitinous layers).
Tripartite coelom (protocoel, mesocoel, metacoel), radial cleavage, mouth not formed from
blastospore….despite all this, molecular data place them with the protostomes.
Reproduction: Asexual, can have specialized gonozooids in a colony. For sexual reproduction most are
monoecious, sometimes dioecious. Will release sperm into water.
Feeding: Use lophopho