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Key Terms Part I of Course (Midterm 1) This is a list of all the key terms included for Midterm 1 from Fall 2008. This includes not only definitions but facts that can be used in the definition section. From "biology, biologists and bioscience" to "Hade

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University of Ottawa
Jon Houseman

KEY TERMSMIDTERM 1 Biology Biologists and BioscienceAges of sandAccording to Douglas Adams science has undergone four milestones of science that can be called the four ages of sand corresponding with glassThe first age is the invention of the telescope 1608 which allowed us to look farther into space learn about planetary motion and the laws of physics etcThe second age is the one of the microscope 1678 where humanity was allowed to look closer at things and to analyze smaller things therefore the start of biologyThe third is the computer chip 1961 which allowed us to look more closely in detail and to allow us to compute much more complex things such as the genomeLastfourth is fibre optics 1980s which allowed us to communicate all of this information and to bring experts togetherLecture I PI slide 9Binomial nomenclatureIts the system that Linnaeus created to name animals using two Latin namesThe first stands for the genus the second specifies speciesThe first name is capitalized and always in italics see Lecture I slide 1114Cell theoryFirst proposed by Matthias Schleiden for plants and Theodore Schwann for animals it is composed of three main ideas 1 everything is made up of cells it is the basic unit of life 2 cells carry out the fundamental functions of life and 3 all cells come from preexisting cellssee Lecture I slide 18 Chronological predictionA prediction into the future predicting something will happen later on not really scientific predictionEx fortune tellersee Lecture I Part II slide 1CladogramA treelike diagram that shows the descent of groups of organisms demonstrating evolutionControlA test carried out during an experiment to compare against experimental results to demonstrate that the results are validEx for chilli peppers hatch berries were control LIPIII slide 6 and 9DeductionMethod of logic going from the general to the specificExample All humans die Bob is a human therefore he will dieOR All insects have wings this is an insect therefore it will have wings see Lecture I Part II slide 5DomainThe highest level of Linnaean classification for biologyThe three domains of organisms are the Bacteria the Archaea and the EukaryaSee Lecture I slide 13Empirical observationObservations most often used by the physical sciences math and facts raw proofsee Lecture I Part II slide 4EssentialismThe theory started by Plato that everything has an underlying vital force eternal and internal which never changesMain theory that stood against evolution see slide 5 of Lecture I and slide 3 of Lecture I Part II Eukaryotes Organisms from the Domain Eukarya they include organisms that have cells a nucleus membranebound nucleus with complex DNA with histones and organized into chromosomesMore sophisticated than prokaryotes see slide 13 of Lecture IEvolutionary treeA tree like a cladogram that shows the path of evolutionFactA piece of known information that becomes part of human knowledgeSomething that is solid a theory can become a factsee slide 1 Lecture I Part IIHistorical narrativeUsed by natural science more often it is a way to explain something using history and an evolutionary originExample how did the dinosaurs dieWhere do certain mechanisms of behaviour come fromAnswer is historical narrative see slide 4 Lecture I Part IIHypothesisAn explanation that is proposed to a set of observations that link to a certain question see slide 1 Lecture I Part IIInductionGoing from specific to general most often used by natural scienceGeneralizing a set of common observationsFor example all the bugs Ive seen have wings all bugs have wingssee slide 5 L I P IILawA theory that becomes law is something that is proven right universally in all cases more often applied to physics chemistry and mathematicssee slide 1 LIPIILinnaean taxonomyA system of nomenclature binomial nomenclature established by the Swedish biologist Carl von Linne or LinnaeusIt goes through kingdomphylumorderfamilygeniesspeciessee slide 1112 LIPII Logical predictionThe prediction most often used by science It usually comes with a if and then statement uses deduction and indctionsee slide1 LIPIIModern biologythModern biology is the biology that has developed recently from the 19 century onwardBefore there wasnt a real study of biology mostly medicine and pseudoscienceOnly afterwards was there a gradual introduction to microbiology since second age of sand evolution genetics etc see slides 1519 LINatural sciencesThe branch of science that is related to biology and is not completely based on empirical observationsIt studies living animate objects and is not universal and is more than just physical and chemical lawsIt uses historical narratives and induction as well as multiple theories not one theory can break it down see LIPIINull hypothesisA hypothesis that describes what the results of an experiment would be like if the main hypothesis was wrongFor example no difference between the two experimental groups see LIPIII slide 8
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