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Midterm

Key terms for Part II of course (midterm 2) This is a list of all the key terms included for Midterm 2 from Fall 2008. This includes not only definitions but facts that can be used in the definition section. From "archae" to "cambrian and ordovician", a

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Department
Biology
Course
BIO1130
Professor
Jon Houseman
Semester
Summer

Description
KEYTERMS PART II Archaean key words Aerobic A reaction that needs oxygen to be completed or an organism that needs oxygen to survive. They use oxygen as an electron acceptor. This was not able to be done until the cyanobacteria built the oxygenated atmosphere. Anaerobic Either an organism or reaction that does not need oxygen to survive, or an environment without oxygen. They use electron acceptors other than oxygen, such as nitrate or sulphate. The first forms of life were anaerobic. Archaea The domain of prokaryote organisms which include extremophiles. Unicellular prokaryotes distinguished by cell walls made of polysaccharides not found in bacterial or eukaryiotic cell walls, plasma membranes with unique phospholipids (with isoprene) and ribosomes and RNA polymerase similar to eukaryotes. This name was also used in the past for the organisms during the Archaean era (oldest Precambrian fossils). Archaea live in virtually every known place and known for extreme conditions, examples are methanogens, halophiles (salt loving), thermophiles. ATP sythetase (synthase) Large protein inside the inner mitochondrial and thylakoid membranes that synthesizes ATP. It attaches an inorganic phosphate to ADP. It uses energy from H+s from the proton gradient travelling through the membrane. It can also do the reverse reaction by hydrolysing ATP and pumping protons into the intermembrane space. *50 Autotrophs Any organism that can make reduced organic compounds from simple inorganic sources (methane and carbon dioxide). They are also called primary producer. Most plants and some bacteria are autotrophs. *47 Bacteria (Eubacteria) One of the domains, made up of unicellular prokaryotes distinguished by cell walls of peptidoglycan, plasma membranes like eukaryotes and ribosomes and RNA polymerase different from archaea and eukaryotes. Bacteria also contain a plasmid which they can use to swap genetic material between other bacteria. Bacteria can undergo transformation, basically taking up any other decaying genetic material from other bacteria. They are divided into gram positive and gram negative bacteria (depends on the layer of peptidoglycan). Binary fission A form of asexual reproduction where prokaryotes divide to produce two genetically daughter cells, similar to mitosis. This is the way that bacteria and archaea reproduce asexually to create exact genetic copies of themselves, as opposed to conjugation. *51, 54 Cellular respiration Metabolic pathway to make ATP, involving transfer of electrons from compounds with high potential energy to electron transport chain and finally an electron acceptor. In most animals, this involves breaking up carbohydrates, but in bacteria this can include carbohydrates, methane or other chemicals. Can be either aerobic (fermenetation) or anaerobic Chemolithotrophic heterotrophs Organism that produces ATP by oxidizing inorganic molecules with high potential energy. Examples are ammonia and methane. Most organisms that can do this are bacteria *47 Chemolithotrophs Autotrophs that use inorganic molecules to produce their own fuel (chemicals instead of light). This method is found primarily in bacteria. *47 Chemoorganoheterotrophs Organism that produces ATP by oxidizing organic molecules with high potential energy such as sugars. These organisms will often use cellular respiration. Most organisms fall into this category, other than bacteria *47 Chemoorganotrophs Break apart organic molecules to fuel synthesis of food. *47 Conjugation Transfer of genetic material from one prokaryote cell to another through a bridge (contact). Bacteria will often transmit plasmids between each other. Genomes may be swapped through this process. Creates genetic variation, could also create antibiotic resistance *55 Cyanobacteria Photosynthetic bacteria formerly known as blue-green algae. Likely the first life-forms to conduct photosynthesis and responsible for the oxygen on Earth. *61 Electron donor Reactant that loses electron in redox reaction. A major component in life processes to form ATP. Examples of reactants are sugars, methane, ammonia, nitrate, etc. *51, 48 Electron receptor Reactant that gains electron in redox reaction. A major component of life processes, especially in the electron-chain transport (at the final protein). Examples are oxygen and iron. NAD universal receptor *51, 48 Electron transport chain System of membrane-bound protein complexes and electron carriers that coordinate redox reactions where electrons are transferred, using energy to pump protons onto other side of the membrane. At the end is an acceptor (example oxygen). ATP is created this way. *48 - 51 Extremophiles Bacteria or archaea that thrives in extreme conditions (extreme temperature, high-salt, low-pressure, etc). Examples are halophiles (salt-loving), and methanogens (methane). Important because they can decompose things that are not thought to be biodegradable, give hints to origins of life *58 Fermentation Metabolic pathway that makes ATP by transferring electrons from reduced compound like glucose to final electron acceptor other than oxygen. Allows glycolysis to proceed with no oxygen. Often found in bacteria, as well as yeast. Process used in breads and wine Gram-negative Bacteria that are pink when treated with Gram stain. These bacteria have cell walls composed of a thin layer of peptidoglycan and outer phospholipid layer. These are the bacteria that most antibiotics target because layer is thin enough to break through and stop synthesis. *39 Gram-positive Bacteria that turn purple when treated with Gram stain, they have thick layer of peptidoglycan in cell wall. It gives ability to defend against antibiotics. *38 Heterotroph Organisms that cannot synthesize reduced organic molecules from inorganic sources, they must obtain them by eating them. Ex: some bacteria, all fungi and animals (Consumers) *47 Nitrogen fixation Through a few archaea and bacteria lineages, they incorporate atmosphere nitrogen into ammonia and nitrate, necessary for life. Nitrogen is called an inert gas because it does not readily react, bacteria the only organisms that can make nitrogen accessible by transferring it into ammonia. They live inside little nodules of plants and produce the ammonia, plant uses ammonia to make nitrogenous plants. *45 Nucleoid In prokaryote cells, dense centrally located area that contains DNA not surrounded by membrane. *37 Oxidized Loss of electron from atom during redox reaction donated to other atom *48 Pathogen Any entity capable of causing disease (like microbe or virus). Pathogens will usually carry an immune response from the body due to the proteins on their membranes. Bacteria are known for spreading disease, such as tuberculosis, bubonic plague, etc. Antibiotics help to kill these pathogens *43 - 44 Peptidoglycan Complex structural polysaccharide found in bacterial cell walls. The difference in the way peptidoglycan is incorporated into cell walls differentiates bacteria into gram negative and positive. This creates protection against attackers. *38 - 39 Photoheterotrophs Organism that uses source of energy light as source of energy but gets its carbon from organic molecules *47 Photosynthesis Metabolic pathway that converts energy of light into chemical energy stored in glucose and other organic molecules. Cyanobacteria were most likely the first to be able to conduct photosynthesis. Usually produces oxygen. Phototrophs Organism that produces ATP through photosynthesis *37 Plasmid Small, usually circular, supercoiled DNA molecule independent of the cells main chromosome. These can be exchanged between bacteria through conjugation. Allows for antibiotic resistance and variation. They can also incorporate into genome *55 Reduced An atom that received an electron from an electron donor *48 Transduction Conversion of information from one mode to another. Ex: Viral DNA injected into bacterial DNA, it will assemble itself with their own DNA and/or bacterial DNA and infect another viral cell. When they go off and infect another cell, they infect it with DNA from another cell (incorporates new set). By using gene swapping or lateral gene transfer is mechanism that maintains diversity and allows them to be such successful organisms. *58 Transformation When bacterium dies, other bacteria will pick up degrading DNA and incorporate it into their genome. They may also drop pieces. This allows for variation a and makes it harder to create evolutionary lineage *56 Proterozoic Eon Alternation of generations Life cycle involving alternation of multicellular haploid stage (gametophyte) with multicellular diploid stage (sporophyte). Occurs in most plants and some protists. Ex: brown algae - In this life cycle, a diploid structure like a sporophyte will undergo meiosis to create spores, these spores undergo mitosis to reproduce, and then they specialize and form gametophytes that make egg and sperm, which fertilize to become diploid. *20 - 21 Ameboid (Amoeboid) movement Cell movement where the cell produces bulges (pseudopodia) that stick to the substrate and pull the cell forward. Only for protists that do not have cell walls. The stiff outer core (ectoplasm) wraps around end of amoeba and squeezes it forward. Movement of ectoplasm and endoplasm like tube of toothpaste. *12
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