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Archean Eon Keywords.pdf

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University of Ottawa
Jon Houseman

Definitions Keywords For Archean Eon Domains 1. level of taxonomic classification above the kingdom level; there are three domains--Bacteria, Archea, and Eukarya 2. distinct parts of proteins associated with certain functions 3. all forms of life are classified into 3 domains, or groups, based on their characteristic Domains of Life  Bacteria  Archea  Eukarya Archaea  Known as Extremophiles; for growth in anaerobic, hypersaline and high-temperature habitats –also found in marine arctic temperature and tropical waters  prokaryote (no nucleus)  survive under strange conditions  extremely unusual  unicellular  They strive in harsh climates and extreme conditions (hydrothermal vents, volcanoes, Primitive earth, etc.) o Late hadean eon was the ideal time for Archaea to flourish because there were such extreme conditions o The reason for their success among harsh climates is that they have differences in their plasma membrane (polar heads on both sides, isoprene tails rather than fatty acids) which make them more resistant to disruption (better for extreme climates) Methanogens  archaea that live in anaerobic (acidic) environments and give off methane waste, also found in digestive tracts of animals  convert carbon dioxide, hydrogen gas, and organic acids to methane gas  convert organic wastes in ponds, lakes and ocean sediments to methane Bacteria/Eubacteria  Has kingdom Eubacteria  prokaryote  cell walls have peptidoglycan  unicellular  anaerobic  autotroph/heterotroph  bacteria were along the first life forms on earth  high adaptable, reproduce quickly, high capacity of spontaneous mutation  bacteria haven't changed from their fossilized ancestors, still not sure if LUCA belonged to bacteria or archea  when bacteria was first identified, names were given (believed we shouldn't have done that)  assumed they were all the same -> E Coli can exist in different forms, found in our digestive tract  started to give new names (if had prehistoric name then they were kept) ->ex: E coli 0157H7, named after their biological fingerprints of bacteria 0157H7: 0 represents the cell wall and H represents the flagellum  unaware in the beginning so organized them with morphology, now can identify with chemical composition Bacterial flagellum  consists of filament, a hook, and a basal body  basal body-a series of rings anchored in cell wall and membrane  structure serves to rotate rod and the rest of the flagellum  helps with cell motion  rotation is driven by a motor  corkscrew shaped protein filament used for locomotion  spends energy to pump protons which creates a gradient (builds up)  flagellum starts to rotate because protons nudge the shaft Bacterial Reproduction  Endospores and Pilli  Binary Fission  Horizontal Gene Transfer -Conjugation -Transformation -Transduction Bacteriophage  Viruses that attack and kill bacteria.  Extracts containing bacteriophage serves as an antibiotic when these were not readily available – phage therapy  have most complex capsids found among viruses  once they get into host, they destroy it  inject phage DNA into human virus, whole virus taken into cell and incorporated  will break down and release nucleic acid Gram-negative bacteria  thin peptidoglycan, outer membrane with lipopolysaccharides and proteins  includes a layer of capsule and LPS on the outside of membrane  small cell wall  membrane has glycoproteins  no purple stain  outer membrane didn't allow stain to get in Gram-Positive bacteria  has a cell wall composed of a large amount of peptidoglycan that contains proteins o prevents the gram stain from leaking out  has a purple stain  less toxic than gram-negative Periplasm  Space between the cytoplasmic membrane and the outside of cell  Present in both cell types o Gram (+) between cytoplasmic and peptidoglycan o Gram (-) between cytoplasmic and outer membranes  Has several special functions Endospore Only bacteria can form endospores  Forms when conditions for growth are poor--> allows bacteria to survive until conditions improve o Spore coat o Cortex and core wall are created from peptidoglycan layers o Contains acid which protects the spore from environmental assault  Made primarily by gram positive bacteria  Resistant to dying, heat, toxic chemicals  highly resistant bacteria ->capsule has been made to stand extreme conditions Pilli  tubules composed of a protein  Cellular appendages that are involved in the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells is called conjugation  exchanges genetic material Binary Fission  The physical process whereby a bacterial cell divides into two daughter cells. During this event, the two daughter cells become divided by the formation of a septum.  process of building identical clones in cells  a method of asexual reproduction where: o cell grows o DNA replicates and attaches to membrane o cell grows and separates copies of DNA o cell pinches together and splits into 2 cells Plasmid small DNA molecule that can replicate independently.  also cut into sticky ends during step 2 of gene cloning by bacteria  circular, with a double stranded unit of DNA that replicates within a cell  Small circles of DNA  Contains genes for non essential, however, beneficial functions (ie. Antibiotic resistance)  Replicate independently of the cell’s chromosomes and can be transferred from one cell to another  Through the process of conjugation  This way bacteria can spread their Antibiotic Resistance to other bacteria very quickly in a population Bacterial Conjugation Gene Transfer  transfer genome of bacteria  plasmids can exist independently or can open and insert itself into it  plasmid will step out and replicate (usually in its own cell) BOOBOO  genome moves into other cell, now has more genetic material Histones  key proteins involved in gene activity (DNA, replication, RNA, transcription)  associates with DNA in chromosomes to form nucleosomes  play major structural role in chromatin  a group of proteins involved in forming the nucleosome structure of chromatin Nucleoid  a non-membrane-bounded region in a prokaryotic cell where DNA is concentrated  an aggregation of DNA in prokaryotes, mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotes, lacks a nuclear membrane and histone proteins.  Area of the cell that contains the tightly packed chromosome (condensed DNA molecule) Flagellar hook  wide region at base  composed of a single type of protein  connects filament to basal body Flagellar Motor  A molecular motor in certain cells that functions in locomotion by actively rotating a flagellum. Transformation  in Monera, the uptake and incorporation of DNA from the environment leading to the insertion of new genes in the organism and thus the acquiring of new characteristics  transfer of genetic material from one cell to another cell or from one organism to another organism  Example: If bacteria didn’t have the ability to digest lipids, however picks up some DNA coding that allowed for digestion of lipids, then it would have that ability. Transduction  the process in which a bacteriophage picks up a piece of DNA from one bacterial cell and transfers it to another bacterial cell where it is incorporated in the bacterial genome  process where a receptor cell produces an electrical change in response to physical stimulation o However some of the viruses that were in the released cell now contain the bacterial DNA instead of the viral DNA, or both Transformation in Horizontal Gene  genes are transferred from one bacterium to Transfer another as a naked DNA  naturally occurs in a few bacteria which much be competent(dead donor cell)  bacteria can be mad competent artificially in lab  approximately 20 genes needed  DNA is single stranded  recipients alter enes because accepts genes that are new  transfer of a naked DNA fragment  Discovered by Fred Griffith in 1928  has to happen when cell are close together  can genetically modify this DNA to be taken up by cells Eukaryote  relatively large cell size, many organelles  genome enclosed within nucleus (double membrane)  mitochondria and chloroplasts  DNA wound around proteins into chromatin in nucleus  there were a group that were single-celled while the others are multi-cell, the single cell were identified as the protista Prokaryote  one circular chromosome  no histones  no organelles  peptidoglycan cell walls  binary fission  single-celled organism that does not have a nucleus or membrane bound organelles Morphological Diversity  Size  Shape  Mobility  Metabolism Aerobic  containing or requiring molecular oxygen (O 2.  convert stored energy in glucose to a more usable form  reactions that require oxygen are referred to as aerobic processes  These organisms accept ONLY O as2the final electron acceptor in ETS (ex. Humans)  Final electron acceptor is Oxygen (called aerobes – can be obligate or obligate anaerobes) Anaerobic  A term that describes organisms that live in the absence of oxygen  lacking oxygen, may refer to an organism, environment, or cellular process, e.g. nitrogen fixation is an anaerobic process.  bacteria thrive where little or no free oxygen is available  Final electron acceptor may be metals (ex. nitrate or sulphate)  These organisms accept metals as final electron acceptors in the ETS (anaerobic respiration) Kingdoms  Animalia  Plantae  Fungi  Protista  Monera Animalia Kingdom  no cell walls or chloroplasts  multicellular  heterotroph- obtain food by ingestion  eukaryotic  mobile Protozoa  a subkingdom comprising the simplest organisms of the animal kingdom  consisting of unicellular organisms that range in size from submicroscopic to macroscopic; most are free living, but some lead commensalistic, mutualistic, or parasitic existences.  regarded as the partner group of protists to protophyta, which have plant-like behaviour Plantae Kingdom  Multicellular organisms composed of eukaryotic cells. The cells are organized into tissues and have cell walls.  obtain nutrients by photosynthesis and absorption. Examples include mosses, ferns, conifers, and flowering plants.  eukaryotic, multicellular Fungi Kingdom  lack chlorophyll, eukaryotic with membrane bound organelles  chitin cell walls  use organic chemicals for energy  fungi digest their food externally  include yeasts and molds  heterotrophs feed on dead/ decaying organic matter  secrete digestive enzymes into food source  as it grows and reproduces it creates byproducts such as toxins, alcohols and gases Saprophytic  An organism (generally fungus or bacteria) that grow and derive nutrients from dead/decaying organic matter.  characteristic of fungi  living on decomposing matter and return nutrients to the environment  do not require a host for survival Chitin  a structural polysaccharide in fungi and exoskeletons  has beta 1, 4 glycosidic linkages between N acetylglucosamine monomers  structural polymer found in algae also Protista Kingdom  one of the supposed, five kingdoms, originally all unicellular eukaryotic organisms were placed in the Protista, then it became a "dumping ground" for others that could not be placed clearly placed in the Fungi, Plants or Animals. It is a highly artificial group.  eukaryotic, has nuclear envelope, has cell wall  could have mitochondria, could not  functions almost like intact organisms, they could sense light, predators  they were divided into 2 groups depending on how they obtained their nourishment -> one group had to consume food, they could not synthesize it themselves (protozoans)->animal lie -> other group had the ability to photosynthesize and make their own food, the protozoans had to feed off other organisms (algae) -> algae were so effective in harnessing their own food, all life in oceans were based on single celled organisms ex: kelp were colonial algae Monera Kingdom organisms in this classification are  one-celled  prokaryotes  reproduce by splitting in two  absorb nutrients from outside bodies  have a unique architecture  examples: bacteria, blue-green algae Metabolic diversity in ATP production  Autotrophophs and -Phototrops carbon sources -Chemoorganotrophs -Chemolitotrophs  Heterotrophs -Photoheterotrophs -Chemoorganoheterotrophs -Chemolitotrophicheterotrophs Autotroph  uses CO2 for source of carbon  does not depend on other living organisms  organisms that produce their own food from smaller molecules Chemoorganotrophs  energy from oxidation (removing electrons) of organic compounds  an organism that produces ATP by oxidizing organic molecules with high potential energy (sugars)  metabolically diverse bacteria that feed on organic molecules Chemolithotrophs  oxidize reduced inorganic chemicals such as hydrogen gas to obtain energy  those that grow anaerobically can't use 2 as a terminal electron acceptor but must use carbon dioxide or sulfur  many can obtain reduced coenzymes by operating
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