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Bio Keywords - Darwinian

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Jon Houseman

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Analogy, Bicarbonate, Biogeography, Carbon cycle, Carbonate, Carbonate salts, Catastrophic theory, Cell theory, Common ancestry, Comparative biology, Constancy of species, Continental drift, Convergent evolution, Cuvier (Georges), Darwin (Charles) Biology Keywords – Darwinian Thought 1) Analogy - Structures that have the same function, but anatomically do not have the same evolutionary origin - Correspondence in function or position between organs of dissimilar evolutionary origin or structure (analogous structures) - Comparison based on similarity between otherwise dissimilar things 2) Bicarbonate - A key component in the formation of sedimentary rock on the bottom of the ocean, bicarbonate is formed by the interface between carbon dioxide and water and usually exists in its carbonate state, which is highly reactive and insoluble in combination with positively charged ions, giving it the correct chemical properties to be susceptible to sedimentation - In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate is an intermediate form of - carbonic acid and an anion with the chemical formula HCO 3 3) Biogeography - The study of the geographic distribution of plants and animals - One of Darwin’s pieces of evidence for his five theories, he used biogeography to show that the distribution of species around the world is largely related to the genetic relationships between these species and the kinds of environments they are adapted to 4) Carbon cycle - The biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere - The vast majority of carbon from the carbon cycle exists in the oceans as carbonate, which greatly influences the rock cycle and allows sedimentary rock to form in the oceans - A key component on the formation of sedimentary rock on the 5) Carbonate bottom of the oceans, carbonate is highly reactive and insoluble in combination with positively charged ions, allowing it to fall to the bottom of the oceans and easily form carbonate minerals to create the sedimentary rock - In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid, characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, CO 3- - Carbonate salts are the negatively charged carbonate ions reacted 6) Carbonate Salts with a positively charged ion, and they make up the chemical composition of the sedimentary rock that has formed layers in the oceans for thousands and thousands of years - In chemistry, a carbonate salt is the carbonate ion, CO32-, bonded to a cation 7) Catastrophic theory - The theory that Earth has been affected by sudden, violent events that were sometimes worldwide in scope - A theory first coined by Georges Cuvier as he tried to account for the lost diversity shown by fossils; he believed that it was huge catastrophes that killed off major groups of animals 8) Cell theory -First proposed by Scleiden and Shwann, this theory is composed of 3 main statements; the basic unit of all organisms is the cell, individual cells have all the characteristics of life, and all cells come from the division of other cells - Three generalizations yielded by microscopic observations: all organisms are composed of one or more cells; the cell is the smallest unit that has the properties of life; and cells arise only from the growth and division of preexisting cells - One of Darwin’s five theories, common ancestry states that all 9) Common ancestry organisms on the Earth have descended from one common ancestor - In evolutionary biology, a group of organisms share common ancestry if they have evolved from the same common ancestor - The evidence for this particular part of Darwin’s theories comes from comparative anatomy, comparative embryology, vestigial structures, biogeography, and molecules 10) Comparative biology - A multidisciplinary approach to understanding organismic diversity that uses natural variation and disparity to elucidate phylogenetic history -Used by Cuvier in order to develop his catastrophic theory, he compared the biology of fossils to the biology of living organisms - Comparative biology, in particular comparative anatomy and embryology, serves as a major piece of evidence for Darwin’s theory of common ancestry 11) Constancy of species - Referring to the theory that species are constant and do not change over time - Darwin’s theory, no constancy of species, opposes this previously accepted theory and uses fossils as evidence to prove that species change over time - The long-term movement of continents as a result of plate 12) Continental drift tectonics - The theory of continental drift gave an explanation as to why fossils were being found on the coasts of different continents and explained why some continental coasts such as South America and Africa seemed to fit together like puzzle pieces - Although continental drift is now a huge piece of evidence to support Darwin’s theories, the theory was not proposed until the 1920’s and not truly accepted as fact until the 1960’s 13) Convergent evolution - The evolution of similar adaptations in distantly related organisms that occupy similar environments - Organisms that started out from different ancestors, but have become adapted to similar environments in similar ways and therefore seem to have similar survival mechanisms - Convergent evolution describes the independent evolution of
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