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Bio Keywords – Modern Theory

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Jon Houseman

Biology Keywords – Modern Theory 1) Allele -One of two or more versions of a gene -One of the alternative forms of the same gene (one member of a pair) or same group of genes that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome 2) Allele frequencies -The abundance of one allele relative to others at the same gene locus in individuals of a population -The proportion of a particular allele among all allele copies being considered -The genetic condition of having two or more complete sets 3) Allopolyploidy of chromosomes from different parent species -Having two or more complete sets of chromosomes derived from different species -The result of two different species combining their DNA and creating a completely viable species that has two or more complete sets of chromosomes (happens often to create agricultural crops, such as wheat) 4) Autopolyploidy -The genetic condition of having more than two sets of chromosomes from the same parent species - Having more than two sets of chromosomes all derived from the species - Basically genome duplication, the chromosomes from one parent will “self-fertilize”, creating an isolated new species (happens often with agricultural crops) 5) Beneficial mutation - A mutation in an organism’s genome that produces a beneficial effect - Very rare changes in the sequence of bases in the genetic material that actually helps enable and organism to be better adapted to a particular environment 6) Bottleneck effect - Genetic drift caused by stressful environmental factors, such as disease, starvation, or drought, that greatly reduces a population’s size and eliminates a number of alleles from a population - A sharp reduction in size of a population due to environmental events or human activities; such events are able to greatly able to reduce the variation in the gene pool of a population drastically 7) Chromosomal inversion - A chromosomal rearrangement in which a segment of a chromosome is reversed end to end - Inversions occur when a chromosome breaks in two places and the resulting pieces of DNA is reversed and re-inserted into the chromosome 8) Chromosomal mutation - A large-scale, spontaneous, and heritable alteration in DNA - Any effect th
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