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Final Exam keywords Part 1

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Jon Houseman

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Biology biologists and biosciences Ages of sand - A model created by Douglas Adams (1952-2001) - Divides the progress of modern science into four stages of sand - Telescope, microscope, the silica chip, and fibre optic cables are the four stages Analogy - Two structures which perform the same function but evolved differently - They may have evolved together through a process called “convergent evolution” - An example of analogous structures is the wings of a bird vs the wings of a butterfly Binomen - System used to names organisms - Consists of two names, the Genus (capitalized, italics or underlined) - And the species (lowercase, italics or underlined) Binomial nomenclature - The system of nomenclature for animals - Species are named by their "binomen": a generic name and a specific name - Subspecies have a name composed of three names, a "trinomen" Biogeography - The study of the distribution of biodiversity over space and time - It aims to reveal where organisms live, and at what abundance - Through works of Wallace, Darwin, etc. it became the basis for modern biology Catastrophe theory - Punctuated equilibrium: evolution occurs rapidly from catastrophic events Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) - Catastrophes include volcanic activity, floods, and meteors - Species which can survive are only ones who live on, evidence: Burgess Shale fossils Cell theory - All organisms are composed of cells Schleiden and - Individual cells have all the characteristics of life Schwann (1860) - All cells come from the division of other cells Chronological prediction - A prediction of what will happen in the future - Not necessarily based on logic, trends, or reason - Differs from a scientific logical prediction Cladogram - A branching diagram to classify living organisms on the basis of shared ancestry - Endpoints of branches represent different species of organisms - Divergent points indicate common ancestor: illustrates phylogenic relationships Common ancestry - The concept that all organisms evolved from a common ancestral organism - Proposed by Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707- 1788) Constancy of species - The belief that all species are unique, unchanging, and placed on earth by God - Evidence appears to challenge this belief leading to a theory by Charles Darwin Control - Treatment that tests the result with no experimental manipulation - Also includes methods of control such as: Control of variables, Sampling error (precision), Repeat the test Convergent evolution - This occurs when species evolve by separate pathways to the same result - Result is “homoplasy” - Example: analogous structures Cuvier (Georges) - Lived from 1769-1832 - Proposed the catastrophe theory - Explained extinction of species Darwin (Charles) - Lived from 1808-1882 - Travelled for 5 years on the S.S. Beagal, collecting species from various islands - 5 theories and the book “On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection” Darwin (Erasmus) - Lived from 1731-1802, grandfather of Charles Darwin - Writings on botany and zoology suggested a “common descent” - Ideas based on: developmental changes, artificial selection, and vestigial structures Deduction - Conclusions drawn from general cases to the specific examples - Realistically done through experiments and law and reason - Used primarily in the physical sciences Descent with modification - Essentially biological evolution - Some individuals in the population experience changes to their DNA - Successful mutations are passed on to future generation, unsuccessful ones die off Divergent evolution - This occurs when a species split-evolves by separate pathways - Result is “homology” - Homologous structures: same structure, different function, likely common ancestor Domain - The highest taxonomic category - Separated by ribosomal differences - Three categories are: archaea, eubacteria, and eukarya Empirical observation - Information gained by means of observation, experience, or experiment - The central basis of the scientific method is attaining empirical evidence Essentialism - The idea that a species is unchangeable, permanent, and perfect - The “essence” in all beings is the life force that drives them to be what they are Eukaryotes - A cell with a membrane-bound nucleus - All multicellular life is composed of eukaryote cells, though there are unicellular too - A domain in Linnaeus’ Taxonomic Hierarchy is the eukarya Evolutionary tree - A branching diagram illustrating the evolution of a common ancestor - The diagram depicts all (or some) species which diverged from that ancestor Extinction - When all individuals of a species die, that species is extinct - Causes: catastrophe, human intervention, sexual selection, natural selection Fact - A theory which has been tested beyond a doubt by various hypotheses - Rare in the natural sciences due to the variability of the subject Finalism - Teleology is the philosophical study of design and purpose - Holds all things to be designed for or directed toward a final result - Argued by Darwin that survival is only observable, final good Fitness - The capability of a species to survive better than others - Specifically to survive long enough to reproduce Fossil record - The remains or traces of an organism of a past geological era - Embedded in the earth’s crust, capable of being identified and aged - The record is the catalogue of all pre-existing organisms, named and dated Germ theory - Idea opposing spontaneous generation of life Pasteur (1822-1895) - Proposes that micro-organisms exist in the air - Evidence: meat in sterile environment grows no maggots, meat in open air does Historical narrative - Telling of the past, usually with some form of explanation for the witnessed events - The study of biology takes the form of historical narratives - Research in biology hopes to provide an explanation for them Homology - Two similar structures which perform the different functions but evolved differently - May have evolved from a common ancestor through “divergent evolution” - An example of homologous structures is the various forelimbs seen today Homoplasy - Characteristics shared by a set of species - Often a product of convergent evolution (environment) - Not resembling of a common ancestor Huxley (Julian) - Lived from 1887-1975 - Proposed a synthetic theory of evolution - Natural selection based on Mendelian genetics to explain population genetics Hypothesis - A testable prediction of how something works or behaves - Observations of the natural world prove or disprove a hypothesis Induction - Conclusions drawn from specific examples to the general cases - Requires multiple observations - Used in natural sciences due to variability, defies the physical sciences Lamarck (Jean-Baptiste) - Lived from 1744-1829 - Proposed transmutation of species through environment - All species started the same, then evolved through environmental changes Law - A universal theory, there are few of these in the biological sciences Leclerc (George-Louis - Buffon) - Lived from 1707-1788; proposed common ancestor & biogeography Linnaean taxonomy - Hierarchy of all living things based on structure - Though slightly changed, still in use today - Branched into: domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species Linnaeus (Carolus) - Lived from 1735 - Detailed a Systema naturae to catalogue all living things (cell wall and how they eat) Logical prediction - A prediction based on logic, trends, facts, or reason - Used in natural and physical sciences to develop hypotheses - Differs from a non-scientific chronological prediction Lyell (Charles) - Lived from 1797- 1875 - Proposed gradualism: Earth is subject to slow but continuous change - Extreme geological changes have occurred, evidence that earth is very old Mendel (Gregor) - Lived from 1822-1884 - Presented the behaviour of genetic ‘factors’ - The Law of segregation of characters, and the Law of independent assortment th Modern biology - Biological discoveries and research of the 20 century - Much more the focus of scientific community than ever before - Technological advancements (ages of sand) allowed for significant experiments Natural sciences - The study of animate objects, with variability and multiple theories and laws - Based on historical narratives, induction is the most used method - Single falsification will not result in abandonment of a theory Natural selection - The evolutionary process of survival of the fittest - The alleles which give an organism a higher chance to reproduce stay in gene pool - The alleles differ and change from random mutations Null hypothesis - A statement of what will be observed should the hypothesis be wrong Organicists - Merge of the two ideologies of “vitalists” and “physicalists” - Idea of the “essence” replaced by the genetic code - The importance of emergence: simple interactions yield complex outcomes Pasteur (Louis) - Lived from 1822-1895 - Proposed the “germ theory” that life comes from life - Developed a process of sterilizing medium still used today (pasteurization) Physical sciences - The study of inanimate objects, single theories of physical and chemical laws - Based on empirical measurements, experiments are most used method - Single falsification is enough to abandon a theory Physicalists - Ideology that living things (except humans) are machines - Althcomplex processes can be divided into many simple functions - 17 century ideology so God’s will was still a key-point Prokaryotes - A single celled organism with a DNA suspended in cytoplasm - All bacteria (eubacteria and archaea) are prokaryotes - It is believed that eukaryote cells came from prokaryote cells Proximate causes - Physical science-like biology (Example: Phenotype – morphology and behaviour) - Usually have predictable outcomes which are intrinsically mechanical - They deal with the “here and now” and can be tested by experiments Sampling error - A concern with experiments dealing with sample choice or size - Caused by disproportionate group, not representative of the whole population - Sample group may be similar but supposed to be representative of diversity Scala naturae - A theological catalogue of organisms based on closeness to God - Created by Aristotle - Gods, man, and birds were high; worms, inert earth, and elements were low Schleiden and Schwann - In 1860 their independent work developed the cell theory - Schleiden obser
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