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Organizing the Living World keywords.docx

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TaxonomyTaxonA group of organisms that are regarded as distinct enough to be treated as a separate unit Every animal in a taxon shares a common ancestor It is a term that describes any of the major or minor groups in the classification systemSystematics The study of the diversity of organisms and their natural relationships It is sometimes used as a synonym for taxonomyTaxonomy A group of organisms that are regarded as distinct enough to be treated as a separate unit1Folk taxonomytaxonomy of the world as told by a medicine man2Artificial taxonomylist of words describing new things but not actually characterizing them into groups Linnaeus was the first to take these lists and organize them PlatoandhisstudentsAristotleandTheophrastuswerethefirsttouseartificialtaxonomiesalsocalledartificialtaxonomiestoorganizethelivingworldWhattheseGreekphilosophersdidwaswritedowntheinformationcontainedinthefolktaxonomiescompilinglistsoflivingthingsAristotletheanimalsandTheophrastustheplants3Mechanical taxonomyOrganized lists of new words that describe new things found4 Natural taxonomyLists organized based on evolutionary history This was first proposed by Charles Darwin Evolutionary taxonomytaxonomy based on the relatedness of species through evolution Synonym to natural taxonomy Classical taxonomythe same as natural taxonomy5Phylogenetic taxonomy cladisticsTaxonomy based on derived characters and their evolutionary history This differs from natural taxonomy in that Darwin knew of homologousanalogous characters but did not know how they were related to the organisms in the sense of which characters were derived or lost and when Cladograsms explain this Linnaeusclassified living things based on their homologous structures First to take artificial taxonomy and convert it to mechanical taxonomyLinnaeustookthesegreatlistsandreducedeveryuniqueorganisminthelisttoanamewithtwopartsthebinomenThefirstwordwastheGenusthesecondthespeciesepithetThefirstwordwasaLatinnounthesecondandadjectiveBinomenthe twopart name of a speciesHealsoorganizedtheplantsandanimalsinhisSystemanaturaeintocategoriescontainedwithinlargercategoriesahierarchicalsystemHiscategoriesincludedKingdomPhylumClassOrderGenusandSpeciesFamilywasaddedlatterasataxonbetweenOrderandGenusHierarchicalClassificationAn arrangement of organisms into hierarchical groups that reflect their relatednessPhenetic Numeric Taxonomy uses mathematical procedures to assess similarities and differences and establish taxonomic groups EvolutionaryDiagrams
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