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7 - Paleozoic Keywords.docx

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University of Ottawa

Cambrian and OrdivicianAcoelomateTriploblastic animals that do not have an internal body cavityCharacteristic of flatworms and ribbon wormsMost accurately used with the triploblasts rather than diploblastsThese animals have a mass of cell derived largely from mesoderm that packs the region between the gut and the body wallAlgal matsImpenetrableCovered the ocean bottom prior to the start of the Cambrian the preCambrian oceanPrevented earlier life forms from burrowing into the sedimentsOne of the innovative feeding strategies of the Cambrian was being able to penetrate the mats and feed on the substrate underneathAmebocyteA cell in a multicellular organism that moves using amoeboid movement Amebocytes often are involved in transporting materials defending against invading organisms or cleaning up dead debris and materialsArcheocytes in spongesArchenteronDeveloping gutBlastopore opening on the surface of an embryo connects it to the outside environmentIn deuterostomes mesoderm forms from outpocketings of the archenteronArcheocyteAmoeboid cells that move throughout the mesohyl gelatinous matrix between the two layers of cells in sponges by amoeboid movementProduce collagen and spongin collagenlike proteinTotipotentcan differentiate into any cell type found in sponges including egg and spermCan specialize into spicules extracellular rigid supporting structures that give shape to a spongeAsymmetric body planAnimals that have no axis of symmetryEx Sponges gastropodsBecause a sponge doesnt have a mouth or digestive tract it doesnt have an oral to aboral axis to define any form of symmetry and is technically asymmetricBilateral symmetry There is only one way that the axis of symmetry can pass body planthrough the longitudinal axis and create two identical halvesBilaterally symmetrical animals have a front anterior and back posterior end as well as upper dorsal and lower ventral surfacesNatural selection favoured cephalization in these animalsTravel in one direction and sense where theyre goingBivalveClass under phylum molluscashell folded in half and surrounding the sides of the laterally compressed foot and visceral mass insideThe two shell halves or valves are connected along the dorsal surface by an elastic hinge ligament give it its nameMostly filter feedersDont contain a radulaThe foot is laterally compressed and is used for burrowingCleavage is spiral leading to trochophore larvaBlastoporeThe opening of the primitive gut that will develop into either mouth or anusForms during gastrulationForms the mouth first in protostomes then the anusForms the anus first in deuterostomes then the mouthBlastulaA stage in the development of multicellular animals in which only one cell layer is present blastodermThe cavity the cells surrounds is the blastocoelIn eggs with little yolk the embryo resembles a hollow ballIn eggs with yolk the appearance varies depending on the speciesBryozoaPhylum containing moss animals colonial mats of animals that look like mossAlso named phylum ectoproctaSessile form colonies zoaria surrounded by an outer casing zoeciumnonliving exoskeletonLophophorates that can extend and retract their lophophores through an openingGut shape is Ushaped and mostly stomach anus is near the mouth but outside the tentacles of the lophophoresMostly monoeciousHave distinct deuterostome characteristicstripartite coelom coelom forms with three separate compartments referred to as the protocoel mesocoel and metacoel radial cleavage and a mouth that doesnt form from the blastoporeLateral cilia create a current and when they contact food it is passed down and toward the frontal cilia which it back to the lateral cilia They continue to bat the particle of food back and forth until it reaches the mouthBurgess Shale fossilsThe invertebrates of the Cambrian were fossilized in layers of shale that formed in the ancient Cambrian seasSoftbodied fossils from the Cambrian found hereFlattened between layers of fine sediment like leaves pressed in a book the fossils in the rocks were ultimately thrust to the peaks of the Canadian RockiesSplit the layers in the shale and there are the impressions of this unusual community of invertebrate animals that lived then
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