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bio keywords final MICRO EVOLUTION.odt

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University of Ottawa

alleleone of two or more versions of a genedifferent alleles can result in different observable phenotypic traitseach trait has 2 allelesone allelechromosome for diploid organismsgenetic variations in alleles can result in differences also can be unnoticeableAllelic frequencythe abundance of one allele relative to others at the same gene locus in individuals of a population to describe genetic diversitycan be calculated by dividing the number of alleles for a certain traitthe total number of individuals in the populationusually expressed as proportion or a percentageAllopatric speciation reproductive isolating mechanism that results from geographical separation between two populationsa prezygotic mechanism Populations evolve independently and diverge into different speciescaused by glaciers continental shifts etcAllopolyploidyhaving 2 or more complete sets of chromosomes from different parent speciesonly plants are capable of this not animalsresults in a fertile hybridcan be created from previously sterile species ex bread wheatAutopolyploidyhaving 2 or more complete sets of chromosomes from the same parent speciesagain only possible in plants through self fertilizationarise from a failure in the meiotic processoften resemble parents except grow more slowly and flower laterBehavioural isolationa prezygotic isolation process2 species do not mate because of differences in courtship behaviouralso known as ethological isolationex songs of bullfrogs fireflies example used in class sequences of bursts of light vary for different speices of fireflies within males and femalesBeneficial mutationa mutation that proves to be beneficial for the individual ex increases fitnesscan help withstand diseasesex those who carry 1 allele of the sickle cell anemia disease are more resistant to malaria in areas of subsaharan AfricaBiological speciesthe concept of a species based on the ability of populations to interbreed and produce fertile offspringbasically a reproductively isolated gene poolno universal agreement to what it isproblems with the concept how do you define a fossil specieshow do you define populations that reproduce asexually ex archaea and bacteriaBottleneck effectType of genetic drift that occurs when an event such as drought or intensive selection pressure causes a population to significantly dwindle in sizethe survivors reproduce but there is limited genetic variabilityNote Bottleneck different from Founder Effect In Bottleneck there is no movement of population whereas in Founder Effect there isex elephant seals
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