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BIO final.doc

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University of Ottawa

ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS reproduction involving the repeating sequence of a haploid n gamete producing generation gametophyte with a diploid 2n spore producing generation sporophyte Seen in all plants and many protists Gametes are produced by mitosis and spores by meiosis gametophyte sporophyte gametophyte sporophytegametophytesporophyte etcetc SPORANGIA a single cell or a mullticells of a protist or plant in which spores are formedSPORE a haploid 1n reproductive cell produced by plants and protists which develops directly into a new individual In organisms showing alternation of generations spores may be produced by meiosis from the sporophyte generationgametophyte generation In algae and plantsand develop into the the spore gives rise to a gametophyte inon which gametes are produced by mitosisSPOROPHYTEthe diploid 2n generation of protists macroalgae and plants that produces haploid spores n in sporangia in which diploid sporemothercells undergo meiosisGAMETANGIA in protists and plants a cell or organ which produce the gametes GAMETE a haploid cell egg or sperm which fuses with another cell to produce a diploid zygoteGAMETOPHYTE a plant or protist which produces gametes gametophytes are usually haploid and produce gametes by mitosisANTHERthe male part of a flowering plant the end part of the stamenA male reproductive organ in flowers in which the pollen or male gametophytes are produced Abdomen The region of the body that contains much of the digestive tract and sometimes part of the reproductive system in insects the region behind the thoraxAlbumen the portion of an egg that serves as the main source of nutrients and water for the embryo Adaptive radiation A cluster of closely related species that are each adaptively specialized to a specific habitat or food source Allele frequency The abundance of one allele relative to others at the same gene locus in individuals of a populationGenotype fre The percentage of individuals in a population possessing a particular genotypeAllopatric speciation The evolution of reproductive isolating mechanisms between two populations that are geographically separated Eg dispersal founder affect Mammals in Africa moves to America Continental drift AustraliaVicariance The fragmentation of a continuous geographic distribution by nonbiological factorseg ice age vicariance cricket grylloblattidParapatric spe Speciation The process of species formation between populations with adjacent geographic distributionsSympatric spe Speciation that occurs without the geographic isolation of populationsspeciation on same environment Eg beak of insect small size will feed on small seed distributed by where the seed is More speciation mechanismAllopolyploid and autopolyploidAllopolyploidy The genetic condition of having two or more complete sets of chromosomes from different parent species Wheat seed stays into stock big seedAutopolyploidy The genetic condition of having more than two sets of chromosomes from the same parent speciesPolyploidy The condition of having one or more extra copies of the entire haploid complement of chromosomes Amnion In an amniote egg an extraembryonic membrane that encloses the embryo forming the amniotic cavity and secreting amniotic fluid which provides an aquatic environment in which the embryo develops Yolk sac In an amniote egg an extraembryonic membrane that encloses the yolkChorion In an amniote egg an extraembryonic membrane that surrounds the embryo and yolk sac completely and exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide with the environment becomes part of the placenta in mammalsPlacenta A specialized temporary organ that connects the embryo and fetus with the uterus in mammals mediating the delivery of oxygen and nutrientsAllantois In an amniote egg an extraembryonic membrane sac that fills much of the space between the chorion and the yolk sac and stores the embryos nitrogenous wastesAmniota The monophyletic group of vertebrates that have an amnion during embryonic development Ascocarp reproductive body that bears or contains asciAscus A saclike cell in ascomycetes sac fungi in which meiosis gives rise to haploid sexual spores meiospores
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