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Organismal Biology Final Exam Review.docx

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Organismal Biology Final Exam ReviewSpeciationSpecies ConceptsBiological speciesa group of organisms that can successfully interbreed and produce fertile offspringProblems interbreeding only applies to eukaryotes and not prokaryotes we cant apply this to fossils the fossil recordEcological species a group of organisms that share a distinct ecological niche habitatPhylogenetic speciesa group of organisms bound by a unique ancestry evolutionary treesat the tips of the tree where no further branching occurs we have a phylogenetic speciesEXTREMELY PROBLEMATICMorphospeciesthe idea that all individuals of a species share measurable traits that distinguish them from individuals of other speciesin other words an organism that is so different that its morphologically different and therefore it is its own speciesthe names of species is subjective in morphospeciesALL 4 concepts fail to solve problem with prokaryotesBiologists cannot decide exactly what a species is and therefore they tend to use all the concepts to isolate a speciesNO UNIVERSAL WAY TO DEFINE A SPECIESElaphe oboleta rat snakeecologically isolatedthey can however interbreedin the zone of mixing we get SUBSPECIES in the process of becoming a new speciesSalamanderthe coastal one adapted to appear similar to the toxic nute bright red Advantageousthe valley one was forced to camouflage black with yellow spots to avoid predators they would hide in leaf litterthe salamander can interbreed and therefore we must call these subspeciesthe hybrids are LEAST likely to survive neither red nor splotchy and they are not viable DOGS ARE SUBSPECIES OF WOLVES THEY CAN INTERBREEDReproductive isolation bio species concept this mechanism is a characteristic that prevents the gene pools of two species from mixing even when they are sympatric occupying the same spaces at the same timePrezygotic isolationEcologicalspecies living in the same geographic region but in different habitatstherefore they are unlikely to go out of their environmentex liontiger hybrids are ulikelyTemporalspecies that live in the same habitat but with mating events that occur at different times different seasons or even different times of the day may experience temporal isolation ex fruit flies one species mates in morning another in the afternoonBehaviouralbehavioural isolation results when the signals used by one species are not recognized by anothertwo species do not mate because of differences in behaviour
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