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Organizing the Living World.docx

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University of Ottawa

Organizing the Living WorldLecture 13Phylogeny The evolutionary history of a group of organismsPhenetic Approach is to estimate trees based on computing a statistic that summarizes the overall similarity among populations based on numerical data For example computing genetic stats and summarizing the average percentage of differences between two populationsCladistic Approach Is to infer trees based on the realization that relationships between soecies can be reconstructed by identifying shared derived characters or synapomorphiesTaxonomy is the branch of biology concerned with the classification which is grouping organisms together based on their information and naming of organismsHierarchical Is a sort of arrangement where you have main groups and sub groupsSystematics is the science of organizing the history of organismal evolutionLecture 46There are different types of taxonomyFolk Taxonomy Way back when we lived in the spoken world people use to classify plants by vegetable or medicine Cultures such as the InuitArtificial Ancient Taxonomy Plato Aristotle and Theophrastus gathered all the plants observed in folk taxonomy into a big list with descriptions of all these plants and organismsMechanical Taxonomy Is binomial nomenclature into a hierarchal system with phyla by Linnaeus He used appearance and not the biology of organismsNatural Taxonomy The same as mechanical but now they use evolutionary relationships to classify organisms into hierarchal system This only happened after Darwin proposed evolutionPhylogenetics is the same as natural taxonomy but they use cladistics to show who evolved form who and howLecture 7 10
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