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Final

Lecture 1-8 all lecture notes

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Department
Biology
Course
BIO1140
Professor
James Fenwick
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 1 Biology biologists and Bioscience Part I 200809101In this lectureHistory of biology a natural science compared to that of the physical sciencesMisconceptions about facts of biologyHow biology is donescientific method in natural sciences2Defining biology Treviranus 1802 The subject matter of our investigations will be the various forms and manifestations of life the conditions and laws controlling their existence and the causes by which this is affectedThe science which occupies itself with these subjects we shall designate by the name biology or science of lifeOnly early 1800s was biology a real science not coined until 200 years ago 3Important stages in the history of Biology400 BCE450 Greek and Roman ages th 45016 century Medieval ages thth 1618 century Renaissance and the scientific revolution th 19 century th 20 century4400 BCE450 Greek and Roman ages Hippocrates 460370 BCE grandfather of medicine Aristotle 384322 BCE wrote History of Animals Theophrastus 371287 BCE studied botany and wrote volumes of the history of plants created taxonomy of living things This was the period where the world believed that the earth had existed and never had changed infinite duration5 Essentialism each organism had an eternal internal essence that has never been changed Scalar naturae the great chain of beingIt organized the living world by complexityAt the top was the creatorUnderneath are helpers angels etcUnderneath are priests and nobilityUnderneath that are common ManUnderneath that are animals birds are highest because they fly closest to GodUnderneath wild animals are domesticated animals then plants then elements then Bad GuyThere is a fixed hierarchy everyone wants to thmove up set up by the Greeks and RomansIt will last until the 19 centuryth645016 century Medieval Ages 400700 Early middle ages Dark Ages10001300 High Middle Ages13001500 Late Middle Ages DARK AGESThe Roman Empire falls destroyed by the German tribesAll Romanknowledge is lost except for whats kept by the ChurchDark Ageslost knowledgeFeudal system is used Roman economy was lost disarray HIGH MIDDLE AGES science again has meaningCrusades occur they find science in the Middle East Plague however devastates Europe LATE MIDDLE AGES knowledge related to human biology no real biologyGreat universities and churches are built during this time7Byzantium AlJafiz 781869 animals are part of evolutionary changefood chains food webs ecology
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