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Bio1140 exam review

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William Staines

Biology 1140 Lecture NotesIntroduction to Cell BiologyWhat is a Cell Fundamental unit of life Every organism is a cell or a collection of cellsKey points to describe a cell organelles plantsanimals cytoplasm network membrane walls compartments nucleus power regulate internal environment contain genetic information bounded by a membrane and exert control of what enters and leaves respond to environment able to replicate cells give rise to other cells evolve communicate with each other respond to other cells around them mutate carry out metabolic processes by using nutrients energy transfer transfer energy with ATP cytoplasm semiliquid consisting of salts and organic matter is the structural unitCell Theory oAll organisms consist of one or more cellsoThe cell is the basic unit of structure for all organismsSchwann Zoologist and Schleiden BotanistoAll cells arise only from preexisting cells ie the cell is the basic unit of reproductionRudolf VirchowThe cell is enormous and diverseThey vary in shape to very complex structures retinal cellsHighly proliferated membrane better for transportation can carry out more reactionsAn ostrich egg is an example of a cell its a coyesent cell nonactive cellLots of diversity in cell function some are unicellular and some are multicellular you can have cells that are highly specialized for a single function such as information transmission or hormone productionThey have a common chemistry made out of same molecules lipid membranes same basic types of lipids Proteins same collection of 20 or so amino acids DNA is pretty much the same in terms of basic chemistry Metabolism energy transfer uses common currency across all cell types in the form of ATP Muscle cells are a good choice to study ATPTo work on chloroplasts use plants Internal Organelles do not affect the surface to volume ratio Size Matters6Most of the things that we will measure are in micron 1x10m and a nanometer 91x10mRefer to slide for more informationNucleus0006mmRibosome30nmMicrofilament0007 micrometer6Giraffe Axon1x10 micrometer6Mitochondrion3x10mWhy are Cells SmallSurface to volume ratioLarger volume more nutrients more wastes to get rid of Have to easily transport nutrients and wastes across cell surfaceLengthLoSAV is 61Length2LoSAV is 31SA to V provides a limitation to cell sizeSecond limitation comes from the rate of diffusion They way molecules move around the cell is by diffusion It is only fast over very short distances longer distance the longer it takesConcentrations of substrates need to be high for reactions to take place Larger cell needs 8 times as many molecules that the smaller cell to get the same concentrationThird limitation is the need to achieve these adequate concentrations You can overcome this with respect to SAV Ratio large organism made up of many small cells To overcome this problem contain reaction in a smaller space such as organelles in mitochondriaEukaryotic vs ProkaryoticProkaryotic CellsoTypically small 1 to 5 micronsoConstrained by all the factors we discussedoSmall simple organismsoCell membrane and inside cytoplasm youll find ribosomes nucleoid DNA which is free flowing oBecause of their simplicity constrained by factors we discussed therefore small oBacteria thousands of species we only now a few primarily the ones that cause human disease and Archaea Extremophiles are included in this group two groups of organisms that have prokaryotic cellsEukaryotic CellsoA typical eukaryote cell is 10 to 30 micronsoA lot of membranes present a key characteristicoInside of the cell is divided up into compartments by a series of membranes One of the way these cells become large by breaking up interior into compartmentsoTransport systems can move solutes around without relying on diffusion another reason they can become bigger than prokaryotes oFour groups to look at The protists single celled eukaryotes Such as amoeba and paramecium A protist has a nucleus and PROKARYOTES DO NOTFungiYeast bakers or brewers commonly used for lab research model fungus grows easily in a lab small grows in large vats easy to work on for bread and beer and although its simple shows many characteristics of more complex fungiPlantsArabidopsis is a plant that is commonly used in research small genome grows easily like growth cabinets in a lab short generation time grows to maturity in a few monthsAnimals A fruit fly is a model organism Geneticists used them for a long time A lot of mutants that are easily distinguished A mouse is a popular choice for biomedical research relatively small happy living in sawdust eat rodent chow reproduce quickly three months generation time mammals basic physiology similar to humansZebra Fish external fertilizers and eggs are clear which is a tremendous advantage early stages of development take place over 48 hours only a few centimeters long reproduce really easily have some traits that we are interested in figuring out their heart muscle can heal itself attractable and easy to keepEukaryotic CellsCytosol is the aqueous solution and the cytoplasm is the cytosol plus what you find in it the ribosomes etcCytosol the same in prokaryotes and eukaryotes but the cytoplasm is DIFFERENT prokaryotes lac the organelles Nonmembrane Bound OrganellesCytoskeletonoFound in eukaryotic cells
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