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Gilmour bio1140 notesAll living organisms are an individual cell or consist of cellsreproductive and structural unit of lifefundamental unit of lifesimplest form of life are solitary cellsmore complex organisms made of community of cells stem from an originating cell may differentiate to take on different forms but they stay as communitymid 1800sall organisms consist of 1 or more cells cell is basic structure for all organismsTheodore schwahn based on matias schleidens theoriesschleiden realized all plants made up of these units strucuture of a plant can be described in terms of these Realized it applies to animals as wellRudolph Virchow added the unit of reproductionall cells arise from preexisting cellsthis is the cell theoryall cells are fairly similar They share some basic structural and chemical characteristics cells are amazingly diverse differ in structuresshapesizes and functionsbacterial cells rodlike shaped fairly smallmammalian large branches coming outspiralssphericalcylindricalrodbranched many different shapesneurons run from spine to tips of appendages in vertebrates are single cellscan be 1m which is very large for a cellchicken eggs ostrich eggs single cells Large enough to see and hold in your hand100 micron rangefunctions singlecelled must require all functions required to lifecells in multicellular organisms specialize for one function In eel generating electricitymicrovilli on intestinal cell can increase surface area which is important to a cell that absorbs nutrientsbranched transmit info to other cellsmitochondria useful to look at muscle because theyre rich in mitochondriasquid axon neuron which is used to generate most knowledge of neurons because its large so easy to studyall cells made up from same types of chemicals use same amino acids use dna to store genetic infocells are also very similar in terms of metabolism most capable of oxiding sugars to get ATPmicron is a useful unit 1100 micron from a cell Smallest cells just under a micronthe nanometer is 109 meters micron 106 things like ribosomesthe angstrong 1010 atoms and moleculeswhy are cells smallSA to V ratiosa is the area of which nutrients and waste products can occur For the cell to survive there has to be sufficient SA to supply Volume increases more rapidly than surface area diffusionsynthetic capacity
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