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Johnson - Final Review.docx

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DNA ReplicationDNA PolymeraseAfter synthesis is done each of the two new double helices has identical basepair sequences to the parental DNA moleculeModel proposed by Watson and Cricksemiconservative replicationComplementary nucleotide chains are assembled from enzymes DNA polymeraseoMore then one kind is required in both eukaryotes and prokaryotesNucleoside triphosphates are nitrogenous bases linked to a sugar which is linked to three phosphate groupsNucleoside triphosphates used in replication have a sugar deoxyriboseThere are 4 different nucleotide triphosphates one for each baseodATP dCTP dGTP and dTTP ddeoxyriboseoie dATPdeoxyribose adenine triphosphateDNA polymerase can only add nucleotide bases to the 3 end of an existing nucleotide chain forming a new strand in the 53 directionThe two phosphates get pushed off as the one phosphate closest to the deoxyribose sugar binds to the 3 carbon removing the OH group from the previous basePhosphodiester bonds form between the nucleotide and primer lengthening the strand one by oneHydrolysis provides the energy for the next nucleotide to be addedIn the newest end recently formed strand it always has an exposed 3OHIn the older end there is always an exposed 5phosphateMAIN EVENTSoTwo strands of DNA unwindoNucleotides are added to existing chainoSynthesis is in the 53 direction adding in the 35 direction on the templateoNucleotides are added according to complementary base pairingHelicaseReplication forkY shaped structure produced during the unwinding of DNADNA helicase is an enzyme which catalyzes the unwinding processoUses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to unwind the DNASingle stranded binding proteins attach to each strand and stabilize the DNA for replicationTopoisomerases remove the strain added to the DNA as it is being untwisted
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