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BIO1140 REVIEW.docx

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TOPIC 1INTRODUCTION TO CELL BIOLOGYWHAT IS A CELL7 CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFEDisplay order ex petalsObtain use energyReproduceRespond to stimuliPerform homeostasisGrowth and developmentEvolveCELL THEORYAll organisms are made of one or more cells Schleiden SchwannThe cell is the smallest unit of lifeSchleiden SchwannCells arise from other cells RudolfMILLERUREY EXPERIMENTOrganic monomers could have been produced abiotically on EarthReducing atmosphere and lightningPROBIONTSProduced abiotically hydrophobic interactionsEnclosed environmentHigh concentrations of solutesRNA WORLDo3 macromolecules DNA proteins RNAoDNA last because most complexoRNA first Ribozymes can catalyze reactions and self replicateRNA VS PROTEINRNAProteinLower catalytic powerGreater catalytic power4 nucleotide bases20 amino acidsRNA VS DNARNADNARiboseDeoxyriboseUracilThymineSinglestrandedDoublestrandedWHY IS DNA BETTER THAN RNAMore chemically stable due to deoxyriboseWhen Uracil found replaced with thymine because it is seen as mutationDoublestranded so can repair complementary strandsSTROMATOLITESoLayered rocks from 35 byaoFormed from microbes binding sediments togetheroCarbon in rocks from CO2 implying cyanobacteriaoCyanobacteria was not first life so life existed before thisPANSPERMIALife seeded earth from spaceExtremophilesENDOPLASMIC RETICULUMEukaryotesRough ERribosomes synthesize proteinSmooth ERno ribosomes synthesize lipidsProducts of Rough ER sent to Golgi complexGOLGI COMPLEXReceives Rough ER productsProteins modified sorted into vesiclesVesicles sent to other parts of cell or secreted out of cellENDOSYMBIONT THEORYMitochondria and chloroplast are prokaryotes engulfed by ancient eukaryotesSymbiotic relationshipModern exampleSea slug eats chloroplasts to become autotrophicENDOSYMBIOSIS EVIDENCEShapesize similar to prokaryotesBinary fissionCircular genomeProkaryotic translationtranscription mechanismDouble membrane inner is prokaryotic outer is eukaryoticWHY ARE CELLS SMALLSA V ratios SA is squared and V is cubedRates of diffusion diffusion good for short distancesAdequate concentrations or synthetic capacity bigger you are more things you need for reactionsPROKARYOTE SOLUTIONStay smallEUKARYOTE SOLUTIONoCompartmentalization increases SAV ratio
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