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Intro to Cell Biology.docx

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Fathi Hassan Chapter 2 WHAT IS A CELLHistory of discovering the cellMid 1600sRobert Hooke was the first to name the cell by its modern name He gave them the latin name cellulae which means small rooms Late 1600sAnton Van Leeuwenhoek discovered and described protists sperm cells and even Bacteria1820sRobert Brown discovered the nucleus 1838 Matthias Schleiden helped in the development of the cell 1839Theodor Schwann expanded the idea that all animals and plants consists of cells with nucleuses and that each cell has a life of its own1849 Rudolf Virchow proposed that cells arise only from preexisting cells by a process of division Cell Theory After that the cell theory formed1 All organisms are composed of one or more cells 2 The cell is the basic structure and functional unit of all living organisms3 Cells arise only from the division of preexisting cellsDomains of life Three domains of life1 The Bacteria2 The Archea3 The EukaryaFathi HassanThe Groups of Organisms Two groups of organisms 1 ProkaryotaIncludes Bacteria and Archea2 Eukaryota Includes Eukarya Measurements used in BiologyHumans cannot see objects smaller than about 01 mm in diameter1 m micrometer1000 mm millimeter2 1 m10 cm310 mm610 m910 nm The smallest bacteria have diameters of about 05 mThe cells of a multicellular animal range from about 7 to 30 m Our red blood cells are 7 to 8 mPlant cells range from 10 m to hundreds of mEquipments used in BiologyMicroscopy the technique used to produce visible images of objectsMicroscope The device used for microscopy 2 most common types of microscopes are 1 Light Microscopes use light to illuminate the specimen Specimen the object being observed2 Electron Microscopes use electrons to illuminate the specimenMagnification the ratio of the object as viewed to its real size Resolution the minimum distance by which two points in the specimen can be separated and still be seen as two pointsIt depends on the wavelength of light or electrons used to illuminate the specimen The shorter the wavelength the better the resolution will be Electron Microscopes have higher resolution than Light Microscopes
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