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Topic 5 Cell-to-cell signalling.docx

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University of Ottawa

Topic 5 CelltoCell signallingChapter 8 Cell communicationChemical messengers released by one cell and affected by another cellContact recognition and adhesion eg cadherins Direct gap junctions and plasmodesmataChemical MessengerHormones chem messengers synthesized by endocrine cells that are released into the extracellular environment carried to a distance cell eg in animals happens in blood very important in multicellular organisms to integrate activitiesNeurotransmittersNeurohormones chem messenges released by neurons that tend to act on the cell next to the neuron neurohormones are realeased to act at a distanceParacrine agent released by the signalling cell and act on the neighbouring cellsExample Fight or Flight responseThe chemical messengers involved are adrenaline and norepinephrine that increases heart rate act on liver to increase sugar levelsrespiratory rate and sweat Steps in a signalling SystemSignalling molecule first step which is excreted by the cell to act on target cells Target cells have the appropriate receptor to recognize the signal lockkey mechanismTransduction converting the signal into a cellular responseReceptionLocated on the cell membrane cytosol or nuclear areasDynamic population of proteins that can increase receptors to get stronger response and vice versaResponsechange in gene expression to change protein synthesis slow process eg testosterone on muscle growthcould be changes in protein activity like cytoskeletal membrane and morefast eg fight or flight response can be celltype specific to turn on different pathways
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