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BIO - ch 14 and 15.docx

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141 Pathway from Gene to Polypeptide Involves Transcription and TranslationThere are two major steps transcription and translationTranscription DNA is made into a complimentary RNA copy Information in one nucleic acid type is transferred to another nucleic acid type Translation use of information encoded in the RNA to assemble amino acids into a polypeptideInformation in a nucleic acid is converted into amino acids Francis Crick coined the term central dogma to describe the flow of information from DNA to RNA to protein Transcription RNA polymerase creates a RNA sequence that is complementary to the DNA sequence of a given gene The template strand is read by the RNA polymerase RNA transcribed from a gene encoding a polypeptide is called mRNA In translation a mRNA associates with a ribosome As the ribosome moves along the mRNA the amino acid specified by the mRNA are joined to form the polypeptide encoded by the gene Eukaryotes vs Prokaryotes prokaryotes can transcribe and translate a gene simultaneously whereas eukaryotes transcribe and process mRNA in the nucleus then export it to the cytoplasm for translation 141 The Genetic Code is Written in Three Letter Words Using a Four Letter AlphabetDNA alphabet A T G CRNA alphabet A U G CThe nucleotide information that specifies the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide is called the genetic code The 4 bases in mRNA have to be used in combinations of at least 3 in order to be able to code for at least 20 amino acids 4364 covers at least 20 amino acidsThe genetic code is a three letter code each 3 letter code is called a codonEach codon codes for one amino acid3 letter codons in DNA are transcribed into complimentary 3 letter RNA codonsThe template strans is always read from 35Of the 64 codons 61 specify amino acidsknown as sense codons
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