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Bio 1140 notes .doc

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TOPIC 1 INTRO TO CELL BIOLOGYCell Theory1all organisms consist of one or more cells2the cell is the basic unit of structure for all organisms Theodor Schwann3all cells arise only from preexisting cells ie cell basic unit of reproduction Rudolf Virchow Cells have enormous diversity function and size but have unity similar basic chemistry ie DNA ATP metabolism etc 6m9units 1m 10 1nm 10m typical prokaryote is 15m typical eukaryote is 1030 m6mribosome diameter 30 nm nucleus diameter 0006mm mitochondrion length3x10 giraffe axon length 1m microfilament diameter0007mMain limitations of cell size are need to maintain an adequate SAV ratio to keep diffusion distances small and to maintain adequate concentrations of substances Cells with small SA and large V would not be able to get proper nutrients exchange with environment Eukaryotes can be larger because their organelles can support larger volumes Prokaryotes simple structure cell wall cytoplasm plasma membrane ribosomes nucleoid flagellum lacks organelles DNA is circular and single chromosome ex bacteriaEukaryotes multicellular protists fungi animals plants use compartmentalization of cellular functions and transport systems cytoskeleton to accommodate size Similarities btwn eukaryote and prokaryote plasma membrane electron transport chain transcription translation machinery relies on ribosomesOrganellesCytoskeleton non membrane Supportshape internal organization movement of cell movement within cell boundMicrofilaments microtubules intermediate filamentsRibosomes non membrane Protein synthesis catalyzes RNA reactionsboundNucleus membrane boundnuclear envelope nuclear pores nucleolus DNA proteins organized into chromosomes chromatinEndoplasmic Reticulum Tubular membranes and cisternae Rough works with ribosomes on protein synthesis membrane boundSmooth synthesis of lipids and steroids breaks down toxinsGolgi Complex membrane Stacks of flattened vesicles for sorting modification and packaging of proteinsboundVesicles membrane boundTransport among organelles andor to plasma membraneLysosomes peroxisomescontains hydrolases catalases digestion of macromolecules oxidative rxnsVacuoleTemporary storage of waste and nutrients digestion of macromolecules turgor pressure in plant cells plant loses rigidity and wilts when water is not present in cell vacuoles to push against plasma membrane and make cells rigidMitochondrionDouble membrane christae oxidative metabolism yields ATP circular mDNA reproduce by fissionChloroplastDouble membrane and thylakoids conversion of light energy into chemical energy circular cpDNA reproduce by fission photosynthesisEndosymbiotic Theory Mitochondrion from incorporation of aerobic prokaryote and chloroplast from incorporation of cynobacteriumown DNA DNA in single circular chromosome like prokaryotessurrounded by a double membranereproduction similarsimilar size shaperibosomes resemble prokaryotes smaller and simpler fossils cells without them first and then cells starting to develop chloroplasts and mitochondrion present day ex kleptoplasty in sea slug steals chloroplasts from algae that it feeds on and can then survive without eating but needs sunlight Model Research OrganismsSaccharomyces cerevisiae bakers Microscopic size relatively short generation time easy inexpensive to culture yeastlarge s in labDorsophil melanogaster Genetic research quick and easy breeding rate environment relationship btwn fly fruit fly and human gene is closeCaenorhabiditis elegans Anatomically simple 959 cells fixedof cells uncommon completes life cycle worm like animalin 3 days does not have to be taken care ofArabidopsis thaliana white flowered Only a few centimeters tall little lab space required grows rapidly easily in plantartificial light genome contains little repetitive DNA easy to isolate genes Danio Rerio Small freshwater Easily maintained produces many offspring eggs embryos are transparent easily zebrafishobservable perfect for studying embryonic developmentMus Musculus mouseSmall in size inexpensive easy to maintain in lab short generation time similar to humans used for research in developmental genetics immunology and cancerMacromoleculePolymer ofFunctionLinking bondsTypesCarbohydratemonosachcharide Structural energy glycosidic bonds Plants starches and polysaccharidestorage fuelC1C4cellulose Animals glycogen chitinNucleic Acidnucleotidesinformational Phosphodiester 3 parts to a building blocks for bond to form DNA nucleotide ATPGTP energy RNA H bonds Nitrogenous base 5 transfer regulate linking bases in C ring sugar 13 cell activity genetic middle of helixphosphate groupsinfo protein synthesis signaling cAMPProteinamino acidsenzymes structural peptide bonds AA made of central mobility transport condensation rxn carbon amino receptor regulatory btwn NH2 and group H atom side defensiveCOOH groups of chain R groupAALipidNot polymersenergy storage Fatty acids not large enough to membrane structure phospholipids be true signalingsteroidsmacromoleculesCarbohydrates 1C2H1Otriose hexose pentose depending onof C in sugar Linear or ring configurationring more stable most likely to be found in cellMonosacharides Asymmetrical C isomers exglucose starch has OH group facing down on 1 C makes it reactive and easily digested by animals andglucose cellulose has OH group facing up on 1 C makes it unreactive and indigestible by animals
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