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BIO 1140 Lecture Part 1.docx

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BIO1140LectureLecture 1The CellFundamental unit of lifeoEvery organism either consists of cells or is itself a cellCell theoryoAll organisms consist of one or more cells oThe cell is the basic unit of structure for all organismsTheodore Schwann1839Matthias Schleiden1838oAll cells arise from preexisting cells the cell is the basic unit of reproductionRudolf Virchow 1855Diversity in form size and functionSimilar basic chemistryoSimilar chemical compositionoMetabolismoUse of ATP as the cellular currencyoUse of DNA for genetic informationSize of CellCells are small oFor SAV ratiosoRates of diffusionoSynthetic capacityDifferent solution to problem of size in prokaryotes and eukaryotesoProkaryotesStay small typically 15 micrometersSimple structure cell wall plasma membrane cytoplasm lacks organelles cyanobacteria possess photosynthetic membranes ribosomes nucleoid flagellumoEukaryotesProtists singlecelled organisms Fungi Animals Plants multicellularSolution compartmentalisation of cellular functionsEukaryote CellMajor structural featuresoPlasma membraneoNucleus membrane boundoMembranebound organellesoCytosol vs cytoplasmNonmembrane bound organellesoCytoskeletonSupportshape internal organization movement of the cell movement within the cellMicrofilaments microtubules intermediate filamentsoRibosomesProtein synthesisMembrane bound organelles ooNucleusnucleolusnuclear envelopeDNA and protein organized into chromosomes chromatinnuclear poresoEndoplasmic reticulumTubular membranes and Turgor pressure in plant cellscisternaeoMitochondrionToughribosomes for protein Approx 2 micrometerssynthesisDouble membrane cristaeSmoothfor lipid and steroid synthesis detoxOxidative metabolism yielding ATPoGolgi complexCircular mDNASack of flattened vesiclesReproduce by fissionSorting modification and packaging of proteinsoChloroplastsoVesiclesApprox 5 micrometersTransport among organelles Double membrane and andor to the plasma thykaloidsmembraneConversion of light energy to oLysosomes and peroxisomeschemical energy complex carbohydratesContain hydrolases catalasesCircular cpDNAoVacuole Reproduce by fissionTemporary storageEndosymbiont theoryMitochondria from incorporation of aerobic prokaryote Chloroplast from later incorporation of cyanobacteriumSupportsize circular DNA ribosomes fissionoCurrent examplessymbiotic animals with green photobionts kleptoplasy solarpowered sea slugsKleptoplasy is a symbiotic phenomenon whereby plastids from algae are sequestered by host organismsProkaryote ancestor engulfed another did not break down the bacterium it engulfed and established a symbiotic relationship oThe bacterium is now a mitochondriaAdvantageous to the host and the bacterium
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