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Bio exam study notes.docx

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University of Ottawa

thBIO1140 Exam Study Notes April 14 2011 MNT 930 am 1230Topic1IntrotoCellBiologyWhycellsaresmallSurface area to volume ratio as the cell gets bigger the SA to volume ratio gets smaller and not enough reactions exchanges will take place This limits the size of the cell that can be achieved2 If the cell is to Rates of diffusion Brownian mvt is slow time is proportional to distancebig it will not be able to keep up with the need of oxygen Enzymes are used to speed up reactions Flowing cytoplasm allows for better distribution within the cellSynthetic capacity a certain concentration of molecules is needed to survive the larger the cell the more substrate it requires Some cells cannot make that amount of substrate Some solutions are If a reaction is only occurring in one part of the cell that substrate is only required in that part partitioning the cytoplasm and making the substrate bigger DifferencesbetweenprokaryotesandeukaryotesProkaryotesEukaryotesStays small 15umlarger single celled organisms protistsSimple structure wall plasma membrane multicellular organisms fungi animals no organelles ribosomes nucleoid plantsflagellumcompartmentalized organellesArchea extremophilesbacteriaMain model organisms C elegans smallest species with nervous system Escherichia coli study conjugation saccharomyces cerevisiae easily cultured drosophilia melangnoster used in genetics and developmental biology mus musculus high degree of homology with humans danio rerio vertebrate development and gene regulation arabidopsis thaliana small size of genomeEukaryotecellorganellesMajor structural features plasma membrane membrane bound nucleus and organelles cytosolRibosomesdifferent from pro to eukaryotes function is protein synthesisCytoskeleton function is supportshape internal organization mvt of cell mvt within cell Includes microtubules microfilaments and intermediate filaments Responsible for amoeboid mvt and can initiate signalling1PagethBIO1140 Exam Study Notes April 14 2011 MNT 930 am 1230Nucleus has nuclear envelope nuclear pores move protein receptors and RNA in and out of nucleus nucleolus responsible for ribosome synthesis DNA in the form of chromosomes or chromatin that contain protein and DNAEndoplasmic reticulum has tubular membranes cisternae RER ribosomes on membrane surface responsible for protein synthesisproteins used in membrane SER responsible for lipid steroid synthesis as well as detoxificationGolgi apparatus stack of flattened vesicles responsible for modification and packaging of proteinsVesicles transport among organelles and plasma membraneLysosomes and peroxisomes contains hydrolase catalase hydrogen peroxide to break down molecules nutrientsVacuole temporary storage responsible for turgor pressure in plant cell central vacuoleMitochondrion 2 umdouble membrane with cristae oxidative metabolism yielding ATP circular mDNA reproductive fissionChloroplast 5um double membrane with thylakoids site where energy transfer occurs conversion of light energy to chemical energy yielding complex carbohydrates circular cpDNA reproductive fissionEndosymbiont theory mitochondria incorporation of aerobic prokaryote chloroplast cyanobacterium supporting evidence size circular DNA ribosomes reproductive fission double membrane current example with animals incorporating green photobionts kleptoplasy forming solar powered sea slugs mutually beneficial protected environment for prokaryotes oxygenability to photosynthesize for eukaryote stable relationshipCellchemistryCarbon forms stable bonds because of small sizeFunctional groupsOHHydroxylNeutral polarCOCarbonylNeutral polarSHSulphydrylNeutral polarCOOHCarboxylNegative at cellular pH2POPhosphateNegative at cellular pH32PagethBIO1140 Exam Study Notes April 14 2011 MNT 930 am 1230NHAminoPositive at cellular pH2Carbohydrates polymers of monosaccharides used for energy storage and structure Ex starch glycogen cellulose chitinoMonosaccharides CHODglucose most stable in ring conformation used n2nn most alpha is optimal for digestion B makes chitinoPolysaccharides glycosidic bond C1C4 MacromoleculesNucleic Acids polymer of nucleotides informational DNA genetic materialRNA used for protein synthesisoNucleotides 5C ribose of deoxyribose nitrogenous base purine adenineguanine pyrimidinecytosine thyamine uracil up to 3 phosphate groups ex ATP sugarbasenucleosideoNucleic acids phophodiester bond dehydration btwn phosphate and nucleic acid RNA is single stranded DNA is double stranded 53double helix was discovered by James WatsonFrancis carboxyl at 3 end antiparallel ATGC purine paired with pyrimidine H bonds form between them dGTP deoxyguanosine triphosphateProteins polymers of amino acids informational specific aa and order matter lots of functions enzymes structural keratin collagen motilityactin myosintransport Sodium potassium pump regulatory transcription factors receptors adrenoreceptors defence antibodiesoRGroups determine the individual characteristics of each aa Non polarpolar uncharged polar charged reactive 3Page
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