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Final

Cell Bio Final All Lectures.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIO1140
Professor
A L L
Semester
Winter

Description
AllCellBioLectureUpToMidterm1CellBioLecture2ItsimportanttoreadbeyondthelecturematerialObjectivesforthelectureCelltheoryBasicpropertiesofcellsCelldiversityprokaryotesvseukaryotesModelorganismsReadingsCh2not25Ch35PurplepagesF52F56WebsiteWhatisacellFundamentalunitoflifeeveryorganismeitherconsistsofcellsorasinglecellitselfKeycharacteristicsofacellContainsuniquegeneticmaterialAbilitytodivideLivingSmallestunitoflifefunctionalunitoflifeSmalleststructuralandfunctionalunitoflifeSurroundedbyacellmembraneInsidethemembraneisthecontrolcentergeneticinformationCytoplasminsidethecellasemifluidliquidmadeupofwatersugarssaltsorganicmoleculesContainsstructureswithinthecellthatenableittosynthesizeproteinsRespondstoexternalstimuliWidevarietyofcellsAllcellscomefromanothercellsEukaryoticorProkaryoticTheyhavemetabolismsconversionofenergyfromoneformtoanotherItcanevolveprimarilyonlyoverlongperiodsoftimeThesekeypointsarepartoftheCellTheorywhichstates1Allorganismsconsistofoneormorecells2Thecellisthebasicunitofstructureforallorganisms3AllcellsariseonlyfrompreexistingcellsiethecellisthebasicunitofreproductionThereisenormousdiversityinformfunctionandsizeofcellssimpletocomplexshapes200nmtoabout13cmindiametershapeoftenreflectsfunctionjackofalltradestoextremespecializationwecanusuallyderivethecellsfunctionfromitsstructureSimilartobasicchemistryunitysimilarchemicalcompositionMetabolismuseofATPasthecellularenergycurrencyUseofDNAforgeneticinformationSomecellsaremassivesuchasanostricheggoranyeggreallyAlthoughmuchofwhatsfoundintheeggisenergyreservesfortheembryoSomecellscanbeuptoameterinlengthsuchasaneuroninagiraffemostcellsaresmallbutnotallofthemthereisalotofdiversityWecanusuallymakesomegeneralizationsfromoncelltoanotherGenerallymadeupofproteinslipidscarbohydratesandnucleicacidsWeseethesamebuildingblocksbeingusedinallcellsgenerallyAllcelltypesuseDNAforgeneticinformationcommonstructuralunitgeneticcodingmethodCellscanbequitediverseinthetypeofmetabolismtheyhavebuttheyalluseATPasthecellularenergycurrencyallowsforgeneralizationacrossallcelltypesAlsotellsusthatcellshaveasinglecommonancestor1micrometer106m1nanometer109mSizesofcellsTypicalprokaryote15micronsTypicalEukaryote1030micronsWhyarecellssmall1SurfaceareatovolumeratiosurfaceareadetermineshowmuchcanbeexchangedandthevolumedetermineshowmuchnutrientsisneededandhowmuchwasteneedstobeexcretedExHowmanypeoplecansitinaroomisdeterminedbythevolumebuttheabilityofpeopletocomeinisdeterminedbythenumberofentrancesexits2RatesofdiffusionTimerequiredfordiffusionincreaseswithdistanceForexampleittakes0067secondsforO2todiffuseacross01mmbuttake78daysfor1m3AdequateconcentrationsorsyntheticcapacitySignificantlymoresubstratesareneededforthebiochemicalreactionsoflifetoproceedifacellislargeSothecellssizeshavetobesmallsoadequateconcentrationsforthebiochemicalreactionsoflifetoproceedTypicalprokaryoticcellsis15micronsSimplecytoplasmconsistsofthecytosolandwithinitisribosomesandgeneticmaterialGeneticmaterialisintheformofasinglecircularchromosomeAreainwiththegeneticmaterialisfoundiscalledthenucleoidTheyhaveflagellumformovementWithinacapsulethenacellwallandfinallyaplasmamembraneTwobroadgroupsofprokaryoticcellsArchaenstheyaretheextremophilesliveinlovepHhighheathalophilessaltloversmethanogenslovemethaneTruebacteriabacteriaGenerallycausediseaseEcoliClostridiumbutyricumUnderstandingofprokaryoticdiversityisverylimitedweknowabout5000andtheresestimatedtobemillionsEColiisthemodelorganismAmodelorganismisonethatisverypopularinresearchinthiscaseEcoliAnaerobecanlivewithoutoxygenMoststrainsareharmlessbutsomeareverybadItlivesinyourgutExtremelyeasytogrowinalaballyouneediscultureanda37degreeCelsiusincubatorTheydivideaboutevery20minutesEasytouseinalabsettingEukaryotesAvgcellsize1030micronssignificantlybiggerthanprokaryotesInteriorofthecellissubdividedintosmallcompartmentstomakemembraneboundorganellesOvercomesthelimitationsofadequateconcentrationsFewmoleculesareneededbecausetheyreintheirowncompartmentsthusreducingtheconcentrationsneededNotreliantondiffusiontheyhavetransportsystemstorapidlymovethingsaroundthecellThisallowseukaryotestoovercomethelimitationsofcellsizeOftenhaveelaboratecellmembranestoincreasethesurfaceareawithoutimpactingthevolumeInsidethecytoplasmismuchmorecomplexthanintheprokaryotesThiscomplexityallowsthecellstoovercomelimitationsoncellsizeHoweverthiscomesatanenergycosthowevertheyaremuchbetteratgeneratingATPthankstotheirmitochondria
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