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bio 1140.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIO1140
Professor
A L L
Semester
Winter

Description
EveryorganismeitherconsistsofcellsorisitselfasinglecellCELLTHEORYbasicstructuralandreproductiveunitoflife1Allorganismsconsistofoneormorecellsstructure2ThecellisthebasicunitofstructureforallorganismsstructureTheodorSchwann3AllCellarisefrompreexistingcellsreproductionRudolfVirchowCellshavediversityinformandfunctionandsizeCellsaresmalltypicalprokaryote15umtypicaleukaryote1030umCELLSARESMALLBCoSurfaceareavolumeratiocanfoldtoincreaseratiovolumeofcelldetermineswhatneedsnutrientsandhowmuchwasteSAallowsthisLineardimensionsincreasevolumefasterthanSAnotallowingpropernutritionandwasteoRatesofdiffusionmovementofindividualmoleculesdiffusionisslowlargerdistanceslowerdiffusionEgOxygenmovingtoreachequilibriumsolutiontransportsystemswithincellsoSyntheticcapacityabilityofcelltosynthesismoleculesproteinslipidsetcrequiredtoruncellmostbiochemReactionsrequirescertainconcentrationofsubstratelargercellmoresubstratesneededtoreachconcentrationallcellsneedtobesameconcentrationallthroughoutSolutioncompartimentalizeonlyhappensincertainareasegMitochATPfoundinthemhavecorrectconcentrationAllcellsusesameaminoacidsalluseDNAanduseATPMostcellsoxidizesugarsforATPPROKARYOTICSmallerthaneukaryoticSimplestructureCellwallplasmamembranecytoplasmthatlacksorganellesribosomesnucleoidflagellumNonucleusEUKARYOTICProtistssinglecelledorganismsfungianimalsplantsmulticellularCompartmentalizationofcellularfunctionsNucleusCytosolinsteadofcytoplasmLargerthanprokaryotesHaveinternaltransSystemsandcompartimentaliseMembraneboundorganellesbothproandeukhaveplasmamembranecytoplasmcontainscytosolandorganellesNonMembraneboundorganellesCytoskeletonSupportshapeinternalorganizationmovementofcellmovementwithincellRibosomesProteinsynthesisMembraneboundorganellesnoproteininprokaryotechromosomeproteinstobeexportedfromcellormembranpr0teinssynthesisinRERDetoxofethonalinlivercellssmoothERNucleusNuclearenvelopeNuclearporesmovementinoutofnuclEgDNAreceptorsNucleaolusDNAandprotainorganizedintochromosomeschromatinEndoplasmicreticulumTubularmembranesandcisternaeRoughribosomeformembraneproteinandsecretedproteinsynthesisSmoothforlipidandsteroidsynthesisdetoxificationRibosomeandcytoskeletonarenonmembraneboundorganellesGolgicomplexstackofflattenedsiclessortingmodificationandpackagingofproteinsmembranesacsVesiclestransportspackagedproteinamongorganellesandortoplasmamembraneLysosomesperoxisomescontainhydrolasescatalasesVacuoletemporarystorageturgorpressureinplantcellslimpplantsnotwateredwatercreatesturgorpressurecontaindifferentenzymesdigestivehyaralasecatalasedegradationofperoxideMitochondriondoublemembranecristaeoxidativemetabolismyieldingATPCircularmitochondriaDNAreproducebyfissionoHaveasystemonwhicharelocatedtheenzymesandproteinsrequiredforoxidationmetaChloroplastdoublemembraneandthylakoidsconversionoflightenergytochemicalenergycomplexcarbohydratescircularchloroplastDNAreproducebyfissionmitochondiraandchloroplastusedtobebacteriathenincorporatedintocytoplasmoflargercellthylakoidsusedtohousechlorophylltosynthesizecarbssynthesisofcarbsfromlightMitochondriaoxidativemetabolismsugarATPownDNAfoundassingularbothreproduceownribosometostrengthentheirownproteinMitochondriahaveasystemonwhicharelocatedtheenzymesandproteinsrequiredforoxidationmetabolismATPTheyarethepowerhouseinthecellwereoxidativemetabolismtakesplaceCristaearemembranesthatarethehomeofenzymesandstuturalcomplexesthatallowoxidativemetabolismtooccurChloroplastarethesitesinthecellwherelightenergyisconvertedtochemicalenergyintheformofcarbohydratesFoundinplantcellsandsomeprotistThylakoidshousetheenzymesandthechlorophylinvolvedinphotosynthesisENDONSYMBIONTTHEORYoMitochondriafromincorporationofaerobicprokaryoteoChloroplastfromincorporationofcyanobacteriumoSupportsizecircularDNAribosomesfissionEXSymbioticanimalscontaininggreenphotobiontsKleptoplastymarineanimalstealchloroplastfromthealloythatfeedsonsolarpoweredseaslugsOriginsofeukaryoticcellsandmorespecificallymitochondriaandchloroplastsTherewasanoriginalanaerobicprokaryoticcellthatengulfedaerobicbacteriaandinsteadofbreakingthemdowntheengulfedbacteriaformedastablesymbioticrelationshipTheystayedintactinthehostcellandwereabletokeeptheirfunctionsAsymbioticrelationshipimpliesamutualrelationshipThehostcellsbenefitisthatitengulfedanaerobiccellThebenefitforthecellengulfedbecauseithasasafeplacetogrowanddivideHostcellsisabletogenerateitsownfoodwithlightLECTURE2CellchemistryiscarbonchemistryCformsthebackboneofessentiallyallmoleculesofimportancetothecellEnvironmentofthecellmanyreactionshappeningallatthesametimeinanaqueousenvironmentawatersolventandarehappeningatrelativelylowtemperatureThebiochemistryofthiscellisverycomplexeCarbonformsthebackboneofmostofthecellconstituentsanditsbecauseithasavalenceoffourandaverysmallmoleculeAdiversityofmoleculesispossiblelinearbranchedorcyclicCchainsElaboratestructureslongcarbonchainsandtakethesimplestructuresandbuildthemintoevenmorecomplexmoleculesOxygenPhosphatenitrogenandthesesareotheratomsthatcarbonsformbondswithCellchemistryiswaterbasedHOtypicallycomposes7585ofcellbyweight2PolarityandtheformationofhydrogenbondsBondenergy14kcalmolPropertiesassolventHydrophilicPolarmoleculesIonsHydrophobicinteractionsnonpolarhydrophobicdisruptHbondingresultsinhydrophobicmoleculestobunchnotbecauseattractedtoeachotherbutpushedtogetherWatertheoxygeninwaterisandthehydrogenIsThisistruewhenitsliquidandsolidHydrogenofonewatermoleculesareattractedtotheoxygensofaneighboringwatermoleculesmakingaweakbondbutthesebondsareimportanttoletwateractasasolventIesaltitconsistofionsofsodiumandchloridethatareattractedbecauseofoppositechargeCellChemistryishierarchicalInorganicprecursorssmallorganicmoleculesmacromoleculessupramolecularstructuresorganellescellCARBOHYDRATESPlymersofmonosaccharidespolysaccharidesoCnH2n0nn3to7oLinearvsringconfigurationoIsomersEnergystoragestarchinplantsStucturalglycogeninanimalsExStarchglyogencellulosechitinMonosaccharidesoCnH2nOnn3to73456carbonsoTriosespentosesandhexosesmostcommonoLinearvsringconfigurationoIsomersIfatleast5moleculescanbelinearorringRingismorestableimportantisomerswherethereare4differentgroupsboundtocarbonPolysaccharidesoGlycosidicbondoC1toC4oavsasimplebondbecauseprojectingbelowglucoseringegstarchcandigestbcomplexcondRxnbetweencarb14aboveinonebelowinanothermammalsdonthaveenzymetobreakthisbondbetaglycocidicbondsNUCLEICACIDSPlymersofnucleotidesoInformationaloDNAgeneticmaterialstoragevsRNAscaffolduponwhichproteinsynthesisoccursmessengerbetweengeneticmaterialandproteinsynthesismrnalinesupaminoacidinproperordertrnaDNAproteinNucleotidesnucleotideshave2rolesincellbuildingblocksofnucleicacidandimportantinenergytransferdehydrationreactionbetweennucleotidestomakenucleicacidsdGTPdeoxysugarganasinebasetriphosphate3phosphatesattached5carbonsugarriboseordeoxyribosenitrogenousbasepurineadenineguaninedoublering
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