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bio review sbi4u.rtf

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SBI4U EXAM REVIEWMetabolic Processes1 Orbital arrangementselectrons are arranged in a pattern around the nucleus of an atom occupying energy levels around the nucleus Orbits are composed of orbitals Energy levels are called n1 n2 n3 etc with n1 being closest to the nucleus 2 electrons per orbital Orbitals go 1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz2 The 4 major biological macromoleculesCarbohydratesmonosaccharide subunit ex glucoseLipidsglycerolfatty acids subunit ex fatsProteinsamino acid subunit ex hemoglobin albuminNucleic Acidsnucleotide subunit ex guanine cytosine adenine thymineAll 4 major macromolecules are organic Lipids are the only macromolecule which is not a polymer as well 3 Condensation Reaction dehydration synthesis rxn Involves the removal of a hydrogen atom from the functional group and an OH group from the other subunit Combine to make water molecule Process absorbs NRG endothermic rxn Ex glycerolfatty acidsfat moleculeH2OHydrolysis Reaction hydro meaning water lysis meaning break Hydrolysis use water to break These runs break down macromolecules with H2O Hydrogen bonds to one subunit while the OH group bonds to the other Process releases NRG exothermic rxn Ex disaccharideH2O2 monosaccharides dephosphorylation of ATP5 Exergonic rxn release in NRG increase in entropy Exothermic ex cellular respiration hydrolysis rxnsEndergonic rxn absorbs NRG decrease in entropy Endothermin ex photosynthesis condensation rxns phosphorylation of ATP6 Dephosphorylation of ATP Hydrolysis ATPH2O ATPase ADPPiNRGPhosphorylation of ATP Condensation ADPPi ATPase ATP H2OBoth phosphorylation and dephosphorylation use ATPase as an enzyme7 Allosteric Interactions have an inhibitor or an activator The enzyme has designated allosteric sites When bonded with the enzymes shape changes either inhibiting or activating the function Negative allosteric interaction inhibitor bonds to the allosteric site changing the shape negatively so that the substrate cannot bond Positive allosteric interaction at first the substrate cannot bond to the site after the activator bonds it can8 Substratelevel phosphorylation ATP is formed directly in an enzyme catalyzed rxn A
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