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University of Ottawa

KEYTERMS PART IIArchaean key words AerobicA reaction that needs oxygen to be completed or an organism that needs oxygen to surviveThey use oxygen as an electron acceptorThis was not able to be done until the cyanobacteria built the oxygenated atmosphereAnaerobicEither an organism or reaction that does not need oxygen to survive or an environment without oxygenThey use electron acceptors other than oxygen such as nitrate or sulphateThe first forms of life were anaerobicArchaeaThe domain of prokaryote organisms which include extremophilesUnicellular prokaryotes distinguished by cell walls made of polysaccharides not found in bacterial or eukaryiotic cell walls plasma membranes with unique phospholipids with isoprene and ribosomes and RNA polymerase similar to eukaryotesThis name was also used in the past for the organisms during the Archaean era oldest Precambrian fossilsArchaea live in virtually every known place and known for extreme conditions examples are methanogens halophiles salt loving thermophilesATP sythetase synthaseLarge protein inside the inner mitochondrial and thylakoid membranes that synthesizes ATPIt attaches an inorganic phosphate to ADPIt uses energy from Hs from the proton gradient travelling through the membraneIt can also do the reverse reaction by hydrolysing ATP and pumping protons into the intermembrane space50AutotrophsAny organism that can make reduced organic compounds from simple inorganic sources methane and carbon dioxideThey are also called primary producer Most plants and some bacteria are autotrophs 47Bacteria EubacteriaOne of the domains made up of unicellular prokaryotes distinguished by cell walls of peptidoglycan plasma membranes like eukaryotes and ribosomes and RNA polymerase different from archaea and eukaryotesBacteria also contain a plasmid which they can use to swap genetic material between other bacteriaBacteria can undergo transformation basically taking up any other decaying genetic material from other bacteriaThey are divided into gram positive and gram negative bacteria depends on the layer of peptidoglycanBinary fissionA form of asexual reproduction where prokaryotes divide to produce two genetically daughter cells similar to mitosisThis is the way that bacteria and archaea reproduce asexually to create exact genetic copies of themselves as opposed to conjugation51 54Cellular respirationMetabolic pathway to make ATP involving transfer of electrons from compounds with high potential energy to electron transport chain and finally an electron acceptorIn most animals this involves breaking up carbohydrates but in bacteria this can include carbohydrates methane or other chemicalsCan be either aerobic fermenetation or anaerobic Chemolithotrophic heterotrophsOrganism that produces ATP by oxidizing inorganic molecules with high potential energyExamples are ammonia and methaneMost organisms that can do this are bacteria47ChemolithotrophsAutotrophs that use inorganic molecules to produce their own fuel chemicals instead of lightThis method is found primarily in bacteria47ChemoorganoheterotrophsOrganism that produces ATP by oxidizing organic molecules with high potential energy such as sugarsThese organisms will often use cellular respirationMost organisms fall into this category other than bacteria 47 ChemoorganotrophsBreak apart organic molecules to fuel synthesis of food 47ConjugationTransfer of genetic material from one prokaryote cell to another through a bridge contactBacteria will often transmit plasmids between each otherGenomes may be swapped through this processCreates genetic variation could also create antibiotic resistance 55CyanobacteriaPhotosynthetic bacteria formerly known as bluegreen algaeLikely the first lifeforms to conduct photosynthesis and responsible for the oxygen on Earth 61Electron donorReactant that loses electron in redox reactionA major component in life processes to form ATPExamples of reactants are sugars methane ammonia nitrate etc 51 48Electron receptorReactant that gains electron in redox reactionA major component of life processes especially in the electronchain transport at the final proteinExamples are oxygen and iron NAD universal receptor 51 48Electron transport chainSystem of membranebound protein complexes and electron carriers that coordinate redox reactions where electrons are transferred using energy to pump protons onto other side of the membraneAt the end is an acceptor example oxygenATP is created this way4851ExtremophilesBacteria or archaea that thrives in extreme conditions extreme temperature highsalt lowpressure etcExamples are halophiles saltloving and methanogens methaneImportant because they can decompose things that are not thought to be biodegradable give hints to origins of life 58FermentationMetabolic pathway that makes ATP by transferring electrons from reduced compound like glucose to final electron acceptor other than oxygenAllows glycolysis to proceed with no oxygenOften found in bacteria as well as yeast Process used in breads and wine GramnegativeBacteria that are pink when treated with Gram stainThese bacteria have cell walls composed of a thin layer of peptidoglycan and outer phospholipid layerThese are the bacteria that most antibiotics target because layer is thin enough to break through and stop synthesis 39GrampositiveBacteria that turn purple when treated with Gram stain they have thick layer of peptidoglycan in cell wallIt gives ability to defend against antibiotics38HeterotrophOrganisms that cannot synthesize reduced organic molecules from inorganic sources they must obtain them by eating themEx some bacteria all fungi and animals Consumers 47Nitrogen fixationThrough a few archaea and bacteria lineages they incorporate atmosphere nitrogen into ammonia and nitrate necessary for lifeNitrogen is called an inert gas because it does not readily react bacteria the only organisms that can make nitrogen accessible by transferring it into ammoniaThey live inside little nodules of plants and produce the ammonia plant uses ammonia to make nitrogenous plants45NucleoidIn prokaryote cells dense centrally located area that contains DNA not surrounded by membrane37OxidizedLoss of electron from atom during redox reaction donated to other atom 48Pathogen Any entity capable of causing disease like microbe or virusPathogens will usually carry an immune response from the body due to the proteins on their membranesBacteria are known for spreading disease such as tuberculosis bubonic plague etcAntibiotics help to kill these pathogens 4344PeptidoglycanComplex structural polysaccharide found in bacterial cell wallsThe difference in the way peptidoglycan is incorporated into cell walls differentiates bacteria into gram negative and positiveThis creates protection against attackers 3839PhotoheterotrophsOrganism that uses source of energy light as source of energy but gets its carbon from organic molecules 47PhotosynthesisMetabolic pathway that converts energy of light into chemical energy stored in glucose and other organic molecules Cyanobacteria were most likely the first to be able to conduct photosynthesisUsually produces oxygen
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