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AnticodonA three letter nucleotide sequence on tRNA that will bind the complementary codon triplet on mRNABy binding to the mRNA the corresponding amino acid from the tRNA can be added to the polypeptide sequence via aminoacyltransferase upon which the tRNA is releasedAutosomal chromosomeChromosomes other than the sex chromosomesHumans have 22 pairs of autosomes Each pair has the same gene but differ from other pairsCbandingstains the constitutive heterochromatin which usually lies near the centromerea selective chromosome banding stain used in human cytogenetics employing Giemsa stain After most of the DNA is denatured or extracted by treatment with alkali acid salt or heat only heterochromatic regions close to the centromeres and rich in satellite DNA stain except for the Y chromosome its long arm usually stains throughoutCentromereSpecialized heterochromatic chromosomal region at which the sister chromatids remain attached after replicationSite to which spindle fibers via kinetochores attach to during cell divisionLocation determines shape of chromosome during the anaphase portion of cell divisionChiasmapoint where two homologous nonsister chromatids exchange genetic material during chromosomal crossing overseen during the diplotene stage of prophase 1 of meiosisregarded as the cytological evidence for exchange of chromosomal material or crossing overChromatidone copy of the duplicated chromosome joined to the other by a centromereusually identical to its sister chromatid but might have some differences due to mutationsChromosomea DNA molecule complexedwith RNA and protein to form a structure containing the genetic informationcompacted into a structure containing two sister chromatidscan be linear or circular varied in size CodonsA triplet of nucleotides that specifies a particular amino acid star or stop signal in translation61 codons that code for amino acid one for starting translation and 3 for stoppingThese codons will result in a certain amino acid being added on as the corresponding mRNA will undergo translation to form a polypeptide A single mutation of one nucleotide can longlasting effects as it may code for the wrong amino acid and have lifealtering consequences ex sickle cell anemiaCrossingoversExchange of genetic material parts of chromosomal arms between homologous chromosomes Occurs during prophase 1 of meiosis during a process called syanpsisExchange of material between nonsister chromatids during meiosis leads to genetic recombinationDiploidWhere each chromosomes exist in pairs ie two of each chromosomeOccurs in all normal somatic cells in homo sapiens as well as nearly all mammalsUsually one chromosome inherited paternally while other is maternally DNA replication process of producing two identical copies from one original DNA moleculeoccurs in all living organisms and is the basis for biological inheritanceeach strand of the original DNA molecule serves as template for the production of the complementary strand which involves many proteins such as DNA polymerase gyrase ligase helicase etc DNA
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