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Midterm #1 Review Modules 1 and 2 notes

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University of Ottawa
Colin Montpetit

MODULE 1 Forward genetics Forward genetics is an approach that encompasses several means of identifying the gene or set of genes that are responsible for a particular phenotype within an organism Mutant isolation is followed be defining genes pathways cloning the gene and creating more mutants in order to understand the biological pathways mutants define the normal geneReverse genetics Reverse genetics is an approach to discovering the function of a gene by analyzing the phenotypic effects of specific gene sequences obtained by DNA sequencing This approach starts with a DNA sequence probably learned from a genome sequence a single gene obtained from a gene bank or by DNA sequencing that has no known function and then attempts to find that function Simply put while forward genetics seeks to find the genetic basis of a phenotype or trait reverse genetics seeks to find what phenotypes arise as a result of particular genes Already have mutated genes then reverse if you have to create the mutation it is forward Using knockdown methods to stop a gene of interestreverseMutations are defined as an alteration in DNA sequence and may or may not create a detectable phenotype A mutation may comprise a single basepair substitution a deletion or insertion or one or more base pairs or a major alteration in the structure of the chromosome Functional genetics Study of gene functions based on the resulting RNAs or possible proteins they encode and the functions of other components of the genome such as gene regulatory elementsModel organism Some of the best known model organisms used in genetics include Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast Drosophilia melanogaster fruit fly Arabidopsis thaliana Thale cress Caernohabditis elegans roundworm Neurospora crass orange bread mold Mus musculus house mouse 1 Organism has a short life cycle so that large number of generations occurs within a short time In this way researchers can obtain data readily over many generations 2 A mating produces a large number of offspring 3 The organism should be easily handled eg storage purposes manipulations 4 Genetic variation must exist between the individuals in the population or be created in the population by inducing mutations so that the inheritance of traits can be studied 5 Other valuable qualities a large store of genetic knowledge of the organisms eg genomes genes sequences unique features eg a metabolic pathway haploid stages cell cycle membrane transporters etc Viruses use to put DNA in other organism
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