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BIO2133 Class Notes Test 1

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Department
Biology
Course
BIO2133
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
Topic1MolecularAnatomyofChromosomesGenesandGenomesHistoricalperspectives In1868FriedrichMeischerisolatednucleideterminedthatDNAisacidic 1910PheobusLevenefoundthatDNAismadeoutof4nucleotides 1940ErwinChargaffsupportedLevensfindingsdiscoveredthatCGATmoleculeofhereditynot 1944OswaldAveryandColinMacleodfoundthatDNAistheproteins 1953WatsonandCrickdiscoveredtheDNAdoublehelixstructureGeneticsasaninvestigativetool DifferentiatingbetweenindividualslookatthegenesfoundinDNA Thecentraldogmaofgeneticsisfundamentaltodefiningthisdifferenceo DNAistranscribedintodifferentformsofRNAmRNAtRNAandrRNAo mRNAistranslatedwiththehelpoftRNAandrRNAintoproteinso ProteinscausephenotypesinorganismsCharacteristicsofgeneticmaterial Storageofinformationo Genescodingforproteins Replicationo Theabilitytopassoninformation Expressionofinformationo Translationtoproteins Variationbymutationo NecessaryforadaptationForwardsandreversegeneticsaretwowaysusedtoidentifythefunctionofcertaingenes Forwardgeneticso Whatisthegeneticbasisofthisphenotypetraito Phenotypeisobservedchangethisphenotypeandthegeneresponsibleforo Mutationsareinducedtothisphenotypechangecanbeidentifiedbytrackingthemutationo PhenotypeInducemutationDNAsequencechangesgeneresponsibleisfound Reversegeneticso Whichphenotyperesultsfromthisparticulargeneo Ageneisobservedo MutationsareinducedtochangeitIfthereisachangeinacertainphenotypeweknowthatthegenethatwemutatedplaysaroleinthephenotypeo PutativegeneInducemutationGenefunction1Nucleotidesarethebuildingblocksofnucleicacids PurinenucleotidewithadoubleringAdenineandGuanine PyrimidinesingleringCytosineUracilandThymine RiboseisfoundinRNAandDeoxyriboseisfoundinDNARiboseOHonC2DeoxyriboseHonC2 Nucleosidebaseribosesugar NucleotidebaseribosesugarphosphategroupNucleosidephosphategroup DNAandRNAarepolynucleotideswiththephosphategroupalreadyattachedtothechainaddedtothe5carbonoftheaddedsugarandthenewphosphategroupaddedtothe3endcarbononthesugar Hugeamountofvariationpossiblea1000nucleotidechain1000has4possiblearrangements2
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