Study Guides (248,454)
Canada (121,562)
Biology (1,271)
BIO2133 (45)
All (10)

TXTbook Notes.pdf

43 Pages
181 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Biology
Course
BIO2133
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
BIO2133Test1TextbookNotes12GeneticsProgressedfromMendeltoDNAinLessThanaCentury121TheChromosomeTheoryofInheritance eukaryotesofchromosomesineachcell2ndiploido exhumanshaveadiploid46 homologouschromosomeschromosomepairsindiploidcello Identicalinsizeandlocationofcentromereandwithgenesforthesamecharacteristicsatcorrespondingloci Mitosischromosomescopiedanddistributedsoeachdaughtercellreceivesdiploidsetofchromosomes Meiosisreceive1chromosomefromeachchromosomepairgetahaploidn essentialsothatoffspringmaintainconstantofchromosomesDiploidnumberisregeneratedwithfusionofgametes ChromosomesVSgenesthesameo BehaviorofchromosomesduringmeiosisISLIKEbehaviorofgenesduringgameteformation geneschromosomesbothexistinpairs BothpairsseparateduringgameteformationGenesarehoweverpartofchromosomesSuttonBoveri chromosometheoryofinheritanceinheritedtraitsarecontrolledbygenesresidingonchromosomeso thesegenesaretransmittedthroughgametesmaintaininggeneticcontinuityfromgenerationtogeneration122GeneticVariation Mutationanyheritablechangechangesingenomicsequenceo Sourceofallgeneticvariation allelesalternativeformsofagene genotypesetofallelesforagiventrait phenotypedifferencesinsetofallelestoproduceobservablechanges Mutantgenesmarkerso Mapslocationofgenesonchromosomeso Canresultinphenotypicchangesdependingonthetypeofmutation123ChemicalNatureofGenesDNAorProteins Couldbeproteino mostabundanto differenttypeso innucleusandcytoplasm DNAprovenasgeneticmaterialinbacteriaAveryMacLeodMcCartybutfailedtoconvinceevidenceDNAisgeneticmaterialfromvirusesthatinfectandkillbacteriabacteriophage bacteriophagehasproteincoatsurroundingDNAcoreo ShowedduringinfectionproteincoatremainsOUTSIDEbacteriacellwhileviralDNAenterscellanddirectssynthesisofmorephageso UsedaradioactivemarkertoverifythisDNAcarriesgeneticinfo13StructureofDNAandRNA DNAstrandsthattwisttoformdoublehelixo Eachstrandisalinearpolymero Strandsrunantiparalleltoeachother1runs35theother53 Madeofsubunitscallednucleotideslinkedtogetherthrough53phosphodiesterbondstoformpolynucleotidechains DNA4nucleotides Eachnucleotidehas1of4nitrogenousbasesAGTC NucleosideBasesugar NucleotideNucleosidephosphategroupDNAdictatesRNAsynthesiswhichdictatesproteinsynthesisCentraldogma RNAstructurallysimilartoDNAo Hasdifferentsugarribosenotdeoxyriboseo Ribosehasa2OHwheredeoxyribosehasa2Hdeoxyremovalofoxygeno UracilUinsteadofthymineTo Singlestrandedo CanformcomplementarystructureswithstrandsofeitherDNAorRNARNADNASinglestrandedPredominantshapeDoublehelixDeoxyriboseRiboseSugarAUGCBasesATGCCytoplasmandnucleusLocationNucleusSection13ProteinsandbiologicalFunction Proteinsaretheendproductsofgeneexpression Thediversityofproteinandbiologicalfunctionisaresultofthefacttheproteinsaremadefromacombinationof20differentaminoacidscanbeanyofthe20differenttypes Exproteinof100aminoacidswhereeachposition10020possibilities Rememberthataminoacidtablesaredegenerate1aminoacidcanbemadebymorethan1codonusuallythethirdletterdiffers Enzymesmakeuplargestcategoryofproteins FunctionofenzymesBiologicalcatalyststospeedupbiologicalprocessesbyloweringtemperatureactivationenergytobody ExamplesofotherproteinshaemoglobinoxygenbindingmoleculeinbloodinsulinhistonescollagenSection121ViralandBacterialChromosomesarerelativelysimpleDNAmolecules ViruseseukaryoticcellsandbacteriacanallpackageDNAintorelativelysmallvolumeseukaryotes Virusesandbacteriahavemuchsimplerchromosomesincomparisontoo Usuallyconsistofasinglenucleicacidmoleculeo Prokaryotechromosomeslackassociatedproteinsandcontainlessgeneticinformation Viruseso ContainonesingleordoublestrandednucleicacidmoleculeeitherDNARNAo CanuseRNAtostoreinfoo Canbecircularorlinearo Geneticinformationcarriedinviralheadsisinertpackedextremelytightly Bacterialchromosomeso AlwaysdoublestrandedDNAcompactedintoanareacalledthenucleoido TheycontainDNAbindingproteinswhicharecalledHUandH1proteins TheseproteinsarepositivelychargedinordertobindtonegativelychargedphosphategroupsinDNA StructurallysimilartohistonesbutdonotcompactDNAo GeneticinformationinbacteriaisnotastightlypackedasthatinviruseswhichgivesittheabilitytoreplicateortranscribeDNAisnotinertintheorganizationofDNASection123Specializedchromosomesrevealvariation Therearetwohighlightedspecialcasesofeukaryoticchromosomeso Polytenechromosomeso Lampbrushchromosomes Bothtypesofchromosomesareverylarge Onlyfoundinthecellsofafeweukaryoticorganisms Providedinsightofmanyfunctionsandarrangementofgeneticinformation
More Less

Related notes for BIO2133

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit