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Genetics Key Words Mid term one.docx

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University of Ottawa

Anticodon In a tRNA molecule the nucleotide triplet that binds to its complementary codon triplet in an mRNA moleculeAutosomal chromosome Not a sex chromosome autosomes appear in pairs autosomewhose members have the same form but differ from other pairs in a diploid cellCbanding Unique staining pattern only centromere part of the chromosome absorbed the colourCentromere The specialized heterochromatic chromosomal region at which sister chromatids remain attached after replication and the site to which spindle fibers attach to the chromosome during cell divisionChiasmaThe crossed strands of nonsister chromatids seen in diplotene of the first meiotic division Regarded as the cytological evidence for exchange of chromosomal material or crossing overChromatid One of the longitudinal subunits of a replicated chromosomeChromosome In prokaryotes a DNA molecule containing theorganisms genome in eukaryotes a DNA molecule complexed with RNA and proteins to form a threadlike structure containing genetic information arranged in a linear sequence a structure that is visible during mitosis and meiosisCodons A triplet of nucleotides that specifies a particular amino acid or a start or stop signal in the genetic code Sixtyone codons specify the amino acids used in proteins and three codons called stop codons signal termination of growth of the polypeptide chain One codon acts as a start codon in addition to specifying an amino acidCrossingovers The exchange of chromosomal material parts of chromosomal arms between homologous chromosomes by breakage and reunion The exchange of material between nonsister chromatids
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