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BIO2133 Final 2008.docx

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15 pts Part 1 Explain what the following terms means or the biological significance For each include a relevant example to which the term applies For this part provide answers for 5 of the following 8 terms Note if you explain more than 5 terms the first 5 will be evaluatedCrossover Crossovers occur during meiosis I between nonsister chromatids during tetrad pairing of homologous chromosomes Crossovers are a source of genetic recombination Example Twopoint cross cross between a dihybrid and a tester results in a phenotypic ratio demonstrating 20 recombination anything lower than 50this would demonstrate linkage and therefore crossovers between two genesThreepointmappingThree point mapping is accomplished by crossing a triply heterozygote heteroz at three gene locus with a triply recessive tester the triply heterozygote being obtained by crossing two homozygote individuals for three gene locus where each individual demonstrate the contrasting phenotypes for each traitstudents may add this to their answerits good not really neededIn this type of cross the phenotypes of the progeny will reveal the types and proportion of gametes that were produced in the triply heterozygote individual and therefore reveal the location and frequency of crossover events between the genes Overall this will permit the calculation of the map distance between three genes Complete linkageTwo genes that a linked on the same chromosome whereby the distance between the genes do not allow a crossover to occur in between the genes The genes will be inherited together as a unit they will assort together during every meiosis MeiosisA type of cell division necessary for sexual reproductionMeiosis produces gametes ex sperm and egg In a diploid organism meiosis begins with a diploid cell containing two copies of each chromosome and produces four haploid cells containing one copy of each chromosome Reduction of ploidy number by half other things they may discuss is that is during this time that crossovers and recombinations can occurDNA fingerprintingDNA fingerprinting is a technique to assist the identification of individuals by their respective DNA profiles DNA profiles are encrypted sets of markersVNTRs and STRs that reflect a persons DNA makeup which can also be used as the persons identifierVNTRVariable number of tandem repeats VNTR Used as molecular markers to identify individuals or for linkage analysis using markers or for identifying genetic conditions and carriers of the condition The tandem repeats can vary between 10100bp and the number of repeats for a given VNTR provide polymorphisms for the marker and therefore different molecular allelesThese can be detected using RFLP analysis andor AFLP analysis RFLPRestriction fragment length polymorphism is a technique that exploits variations in homologous DNA sequences It refers to a difference between samples of homologous DNA molecules that come from differing locations of restriction enzyme sitesIn RFLP analysis the DNA sample is broken into pieces digested by restriction enzymes and the resulting restriction fragments are separated according to their lengths by gel electrophoresisExamples of use of RFLP In addition to genetic fingerprinting RFLP was an important tool in genome mapping localization of genes for genetic disorders determination of risk for disease and paternity testing
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